Rotation Invariant Face Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks
This article addresses the problem of rotation invariant face detection using convolutional neural networks. Recently, we developed a new class of convolutional neural networks for visual pattern recognition. These networks have a simple network architecture and use shunting inhibitory neurons as the basic computing elements for feature extraction. Three networks with different connection schemes have been developed for in-plane rotation invariant face detection: fully-connected, toeplitz-connected, and binary-connected networks. The three networks are trained using a variant of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and tested on a set of 40,000 rotated face patterns. As a face/non-face classifier, these networks achieve 97.3% classification accuracy for a rotation angle in the range ±900 and 95.9% for full in-plane rotation. The proposed networks have fewer free parameters and better generalization ability than the feedforward neural networks, and outperform the conventional convolutional neural networks.
KeywordsHide Layer Inhibitory Neuron Convolutional Neural Network Convolutional Layer Face Pattern
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