Verification and Refactoring of Ontologies with Rules

  • Joachim Baumeister
  • Dietmar Seipel
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4248)


Currently, the introduction of an appropriate rule representation layer for the semantic web stack is discussed. However, with the inclusion of rule-based knowledge new verification issues for rule-augmented ontologies arise.

In this paper we investigate the detection of anomalies as an important subtask of verification. We extend and revise existing approaches for the syntactic verification of ontologies with respect to the existence of rules, and we introduce new anomalies considering the understandability and maintainability of such ontologies.


Transitive Closure Property Atom Ontological Knowledge DataType Property Class Atom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Horrocks, I., Parsia, B., Patel-Schneider, P., Hendler, J.: Semantic Web Architecture: Stack or Two Towers? In: Fages, F., Soliman, S. (eds.) PPSWR 2005. LNCS, vol. 3703, pp. 37–41. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Horrocks, I., Patel-Schneider, P.F., Bechhofer, S., Tsarkov, D.: OWL Rules: A Proposal and Prototype Implementation. Journal of Web Semantics 3(1), 23–40 (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Horrocks, I., Patel-Schneider, P.F., Boley, H., Tabet, S., Grosof, B., Dean, M.: SWRL: A Semantic Web Rule Language - Combining OWL and RuleML, W3C Member Submission (May 2004),
  4. 4.
    Bechhofer, S., van Harmelen, F., Hendler, J., Horrocks, I., McGuinness, D.L., Patel-Schneider, P.F., Stein, L.A.: OWL Web Ontology Language Reference – W3C Recommendation (February 2004),
  5. 5.
    Guarino, N., Welty, C.: Evaluating Ontological Decisions with OntoClean. Communications of the ACM 45(2) (2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rector, A.L., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., Wroe, C.: OWL Pizzas: Practical Experience of Teaching OWL-DL: Common Errors & Common Patterns. In: Motta, E., Shadbolt, N.R., Stutt, A., Gibbins, N. (eds.) EKAW 2004. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3257, pp. 63–81. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gómez-Pérez, A.: Evaluation of Ontologies. International Journal of Intelligent Systems 16(3), 391–409 (2001)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Preece, A., Shinghal, R.: Foundation and Application of Knowledge Base Verification. International Journal of Intelligent Systems 9, 683–702 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Preece, A., Shinghal, R., Batarekh, A.: Verifying Expert Systems. A Logical Framework and a Practical Tool. Expert Systems with Applications 5(3/4), 421–436 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ceri, S., Gottlob, G., Tanca, L.: Logic Programming and Databases. Springer, Berlin (1990)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fowler, M.: Refactoring. Improving the Design of Existing Code. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1999)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Opdyke, W.F.: Refactoring Object-Oriented Frameworks. PhD thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA (1992)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baumeister, J., Seipel, D., Puppe, F.: Refactoring Methods for Knowledge Bases. In: Motta, E., Shadbolt, N.R., Stutt, A., Gibbins, N. (eds.) EKAW 2004. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3257, pp. 157–171. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baumeister, J., Seipel, D.: Smelly Owls – Design Anomalies in Ontologies. In: Proc. of the 18th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference (FLAIRS), pp. 215–220. AAAI Press, Menlo Park (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Patel-Schneider, P.F.: A Proposal for a SWRL Extension to First-Order Logic (November 2004),
  16. 16.
    Zlatareva, N.: Testing the Integrity of Non-Monotonic Knowledge Bases Containing Semi-Normal Defaults. In: Proc. of the 17th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference (FLAIRS), pp. 349–354. AAAI Press, Menlo Park (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joachim Baumeister
    • 1
  • Dietmar Seipel
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Computer ScienceUniversity of WürzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations