Invariants that incrementally maintain the value of expressions under assignments to their variables are a natural abstraction to build high-level local search algorithms. But their functionalities are not sufficient to allow arbitrary expressions as constraints or objective functions as in constraint programming. Differentiable invariants bridge this expressiveness gap. A differentiable invariant maintains the value of an expression and its variable gradients, it supports differentiation to evaluate the effect of local moves. The benefits of differentiable invariants are illustrated on a number of applications which feature complex, possibly reified, expressions and whose models are essentially similar to their CP counterparts. Experimental results demonstrate their practicability.
KeywordsObjective Function Local Search Local Move Constraint Programming Local Search Algorithm
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