Mission Unaccomplished: Form and Behavior But No Function

  • Mark J. Clayton
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4200)


Tools for modeling function may be an important step in achieving computer-aided design software that can genuinely improve the quality of design. Although researchers have included function in product models for many years, current commercial Building Information Models are focused upon representations of form that can drive models of behavior but lack models of function. If a model of function is added to a BIM, then the building model will be much more capable of representing the cognitive process of design and of supporting design reasoning. The paradigm of a form model, a function model, and a behavior model may suggest ways to reorganize architectural and engineering practice. Design teams could also be organized into roles of form modelers, function modelers, and behavior modelers. Although this would be a radical and novel definition of roles in a team, it parallels principles that have arisen naturally in contemporary practice.


Design Team Building Information Modeling Form Object Design Profession Behavior Object 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Greenberg, D.P.: Computer Graphics and Visualization. In: Pipes, A. (ed.) Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, pp. 63–67. Butterworth Scientific, Ltd., London (1986)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yessios, C.: What has yet to be CAD. In: Turner, J. (ed.) Architectural Education, Research and Practice in the Next Decade. Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, pp. 29–36 (1986)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bjork, B.-C.: Basic structure of a proposed building product model. Computer-Aided Design 21(2), 71–78 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Willems, P.H.: A Meta-Topology for Product Modeling. In: Proceedings: Computers in Building W74 + W78 Seminar: Conceptual Modelling of Buildings, Lund, Sweden, pp. 213–221 (1988)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bedell, J.R., Kohler, N.: A Hierarchical Model for Building Applications. In: Flemming, U., Van Wyk, S. (eds.) CAAD Futures 1993, pp. 423–435. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., North Holland (1993)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Simon, H.A.: The Sciences of the Artificial. The MIT Press, Cambridge (1969)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gero, J.S.: Design prototypes: a knowledge representation schema for design. AI Magazine 11(4), 26–36 (1990)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gero, J.S.: The role of function-behavior-structure models in design. In: Computing in civil engineering, vol. 1, pp. 294–301. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gero, J.S., Kannengiesser, U.: The situated function–behaviour–structure framework. Design Studies 25(4), 373–391 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McNeill, T., Gero, J.S., Warren, J.: Understanding conceptual electronic design using protocol analysis. Research in Engineering Design 10, 129–140 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clayton, M.J., Kunz, J.C., Fischer, M.A.: Rapid conceptual design evaluation using a virtual product model. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 9(4), 439–451 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clayton, M.J., Teicholz, P., Fischer, M., Kunz, J.: Virtual components consisting of form, function and behavior. Automation in construction 8, 351–367 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Winograd, T., Flores, F.: Understanding computers and Cognition, A New Foundation for Design. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1986)MATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kitamura, Y., Kashiwase, M., Fuse, M., Mizoguichi, R.: Deployment of an ontological framework of functional design knowledge. Advanced Engineering Informatics 18(2), 115–127 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peña, W., Parshall, S., Kelly, K.: Problem Seeking – An Architectural Programming Primer, 3rd edn. AIA Press, Washington (1987)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark J. Clayton
    • 1
  1. 1.College of ArchitectureTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations