Legal Ontologies for the Spanish e-Government

  • Asunción Gómez-Pérez
  • Fernando Ortiz-Rodríguez
  • Boris Villazón-Terrazas
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4177)


The Electronic Government is a new field of applications for the semantic web where ontologies are becoming an important research technology. The e-Government faces considerable challenges to achieve interoperability given the semantic differences of interpretation, complexity and width of scope. In this paper we present the results obtained in an ongoing project commissioned by the Spanish government that seeks strategies for the e-Government to reduce the problems encountered when delivering services to citizens. We also introduce an e-Government ontology model; within this model a set of legal ontologies are devoted to representing the Real-estate transaction domain used to illustrate this paper.


Binary Relation Class Attribute Natural Person Ontology Model Knowledge Engineer 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Borst, W.N.: Construction of Engineering Ontologies. University of Tweenty. Enschede, NL-Centre for Telematica and Information Technology (1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Breuker, J.: Constructing a Legal Core Ontology: LRI-Core.University of Amsterdam, Leibniz Center for Law, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Curtain, G., Sommer, M., Vis-Sommer, V. (eds.): The World of E-Government. The Haworth Press (2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Traunmüller, R., Lenk, K. (eds.): EGOV 2002. LNCS, vol. 2456. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)MATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gómez-Pérez, A., Fernández-López, M., Corcho, O.: Ontological Engineering. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gruber, T.R.: A Translation Approach to Portable Oontologies. Knowledge Acquisition 5(2), 199–220 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gruber, T.R.: Toward Principles for the Design of Ontologies Used for Knowledge Sharing. In: Guarino, N. (ed.) Padua workshop on Formal Ontology (1993) (to appear)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hendler, J., Berners-Lee, T., Miller, E.: Integrating Applications on the Semantic Web (2002),
  9. 9.
    Kralingen, R.W.: Frame-based Conceptual Models of Statute Law, Computer/Law Series, vol. (16). Kluwer Law International. The Hague, the Netherlands (1995)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCarty, L.T.: A Language for Legal Discourse, I. Basic Features. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 180–189 (1989)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Melz, E., Valente, A.: Modelling the Tax Code. In: The Second International Workshop on Regulatory Ontologies (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Neches, R., Fikes, R.E., Finin, T., Gruber, T.R., Senator, T., Swartout, W.R.: Enabling Technology for Knowledge Sharing. AI Magazine 12(3), 36–56 (1991)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stamper, R.K.: LEGOL: Modelling Legal Rules by Computer. In: Computer Science and Law. Bryan Niblett, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom (1980)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stamper, R.K.: The Role of Semantics in Legal Expert Systems and Legal Reasoning. Ratio Juris 4(2), 219–244 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Studer, R., Benjamins, V.R., Fensel, D.: Knowledge Engineering: Principles and Methods. Data and Knowledge Engineering 25, 161–197 (1998)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Valente, A.: Legal Knowledge Engineering; A Modelling Approach, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1995)MATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Valente, A.: Types and Roles of Legal Ontologies. In: Benjamins, V.R., et al. (eds.) Types and Roles of Legal Ontologies, pp. 65–76 (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Visser, P.R.S.: Knowledge Specification for Multiple Legal Tasks; A Case Study of the Interaction Problem in the Legal Domain. Computer / Law Series, (17). Kluwer Law International, The Hague, The Netherlands (1995)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asunción Gómez-Pérez
    • 1
  • Fernando Ortiz-Rodríguez
    • 1
  • Boris Villazón-Terrazas
    • 1
  1. 1.Ontology Engineering Group, Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial Facultad de InformáticaUniversidad Politécnica de MadridSpain

Personalised recommendations