Creating and Delivering Adaptive Courses with AHA!

  • Paul De Bra
  • David Smits
  • Natalia Stash
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4227)


AHA! is an Open Source adaptive hypermedia platform, resulting from 10 years of experience with creating, using and improving on-line adaptive courses and presentations. This paper focuses on some recent additions to AHA! that are especially important for adaptive educational applications, namely stable presentations, adaptive link (icon) annotations and adaptive link destinations. We not only describe the technical aspects of these parts of AHA! but also illustrate their use in educational applications. We describe some fundamental limitations of Web-based adaptive applications, and show how AHA! deals with them in order to provide adaptation to prerequisite relationships in the way one would expect.


Educational Application Stable Presentation International World Wide Adaptive Link Link Destination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Andrews, K., Kappe, F., Maurer, M.: Serving Information to the Web with Hyper-G. In: Third International World Wide Web Conference, Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, vol. (27), pp. 919–926 (1995)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brusilovsky, P.: Methods and Techniques of Adaptive Hypermedia. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 6, 87–129 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brusilovsky, P.: Adaptive Hypermedia. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 11, 87–110 (2001)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brusilovsky, P., Eklund, J., Schwarz, E.: Web-based education for all: A tool for developing adaptive courseware. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems (Proceedings of the 7th Int. World Wide Web Conference) 30(1-7), 291–300 (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brusilovsky, P., Schwarz, E., Weber, G.: ELM-ART: An intelligent tutorian system on World Wide Web. In: Lesgold, A., Frasson, C., Gauthier, G. (eds.) ITS 1996. LNCS, vol. 1086, pp. 261–269. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen, S., Macredie, R.: Cognitive styles and hypermedia navigation: Development of a learning model. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 53(1), 3–15 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cristea, A.I., Smits, D., De Bra, P.: Writing MOT, Reading AHA! - converting between an authoring and a delivery system for adaptive educational hypermedia. In: A3EH Workshop, AIED 2005 (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Bra, P.: Hypermedia Structures and Systems. Adaptive course text offered at the TU/e (1994, 1996), available at:
  9. 9.
    De Bra, P., Aerts, A., Berden, B., De Lange, B., Rousseau, B., Santic, T., Smits, D., Stash, N.: AHA! The Adaptive Hypermedia Architecture. In: Proceedings of the ACM Hypertext Conference, Nottingham, UK, pp. 81–84 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    De Bra, P., Aerts, A., Rousseau, B.: Concept Relationship Types for AHA! 2.0. In: Proceedings of the AACE ELearn 2002 Conference, pp. 1386–1389 (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    De Bra, P., Smits, D., Stash, N.: The Design of AHA! In: Proceedings of the ACM Hypertext Conference, Odense, Denmark (2006), and on-line adaptive version at:
  12. 12.
    Henze, N., Nejdl, W.: Adaptivity in the KBS Hyperbook System. In: Second Workshop on Adaptive Systems and User Modeling on the WWW, TU/e CSN 99-97, Toronto, Canada, pp. 67–74 (1999)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Millard, D., Moreau, L., Davis, H., Reich, S.: FOHM: A Fundamental Open Hypertext Model for Investigating Interoperability between Hypertext Domains. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Hypertext, pp. 93–102 (2000)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stash, N., Cristea, A., De Bra, P.: Explicit Intelligence in Adaptive Hypermedia: Generic Adaptation Languages for Learning Preferences and Styles. In: HT 2005, CIAH Workshop, Salzburg (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stash, N., Cristea, A.I., De Bra, P.: Authoring of Learning Styles in Adaptive Hypermedia: Problems and Solutions. In: WWW 2004, The 13th International World Wide Web Conference, pp. 114–123 (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stash, N., De Bra, P.: Incorporating Cognitive Styles in AHA! (The Adaptive Hypermedia Architecture). In: Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference Web-Based Education, pp. 378–383 (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Weber, G., Kuhl, H.-C., Weibelzahl, S.: Developing Adaptive Internet Based Courses with the Authoring System NetCoach. In: Reich, S., Tzagarakis, M.M., De Bra, P.M.E. (eds.) AH-WS 2001, SC 2001, and OHS 2001. LNCS, vol. 2266, pp. 226–238. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul De Bra
    • 1
  • David Smits
    • 1
  • Natalia Stash
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Mathematics and Computer ScienceEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations