Considering Human Memory Aspects for Adaptation and Its Realization in AHA!

  • Mária Bieliková
  • Peter Nagy
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4227)


Existing adaptive learning systems use various user characteristics for preparing personalized presentation of educational material for each user (a student). In the process of learning limited capacity of the human memory plays important role. The student often forgets part of knowledge acquired during the learning. In this paper we discuss implications of remembering and forgetting for the adaptive learning systems. We present a proposal of modeling forgetting process in adaptive learning systems that enables including knowledge repetition into an educational course. We implemented proposed model within the web-based adaptive system AHA! and demonstrate its viability on domain of learning English-Slovak vocabulary. This includes also a technique for inserting concepts for knowledge repeating into a running direct guided course. Using this technique it is possible to dynamically adapt the sequence of presented concepts to the actual state of the user model.


Domain Model Human Memory Information Item Sensory Memory Memory Attribute 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Brusilovsky, P., Karagiannidis, C., Sampson, D.: Layered evaluation of adaptive learning systems. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning 14(4/5), 402–421 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brusilovsky, P.: Adaptive hypermedia. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 11(1-2), 87–100 (2001)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    IEEE: IEEE P1484.2/D7, 2000-11-28. Draft Standard for Learning Technology. Public and Private Information (PAPI) for Learners (2000), available at:
  4. 4.
    Tuovinen, J.: Optimising student cognitive load in computer education. In: Ellis, A.E. (ed.) Proc. of the Australasian conference on Computing education, pp. 235–241. ACM Press, New York (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Atkinson, R., Shiffrin, R.: Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In: Spence, K., Spence, J. (eds.) The psychology of learning and motivation. Academic Press, London (1968)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miller, G.: The magical number, seven, plus or minus two: sme limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review (63), 81–97 (1956)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ebbinghaus, H.: Memory. A Contribution to Experimental Psychology. Thoemmes Press (1885); reprinted Bristol 1999Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ágh, P., Bieliková, M.: Considering human memory aspects to adapting in educational hypermedia. In: Aroyo, L., Tasso, C. (eds.) Proc. of Workshop on Indifidual Differences, AH 2004: 3rd Int. Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems, pp. 107–114 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Craik, F., Lockhart, R.: Levels of processing. a framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour (11), 671–684 (1972)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    De Bra, P., Aerts, A., Berden, B., De Lange, B., Rousseau, B., Santic, T., Smits, D., Stash, N.: AHA! the adaptive hypermedia architecture. In: Proc. of the ACM Conf. on Hypertext and Hypermedia, Nottingham, UK, pp. 81–84 (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    De Bra, P., Smits, D., Stash, N.: Creating adaptive applications with aha! Tutorial for AHA! version 3.0. In: Aroyo, L., Tasso, C. (eds.) AH 2004 Tutorials, pp. 1–29 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bieliková, M., Kuruc, J., Andrejko, A.: Learning programming with adaptive web-based hypermedia system AHA!. In: Jakab, F., Fedák, V., Sivý, I., Bučko, M. (eds.) Proc. of ICETA 2005 - 4th Int. Conf. on Emerging e-learning Technologies and Applications, pp. 251–256 (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mária Bieliková
    • 1
  • Peter Nagy
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Informatics and Software Engineering, Faculty of Informatics and Information TechnologiesSlovak University of TechnologyBratislavaSlovakia

Personalised recommendations