Assessment of Hazard Identification Methods for the Automotive Domain

  • Fredrik Törner
  • Per Johannessen
  • Peter Öhman
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4166)


Many automotive electronic systems are safety related and therefore need to be developed using a safety process. A preliminary hazard analysis, PHA, is one of the first and vital steps in such a process. In this paper, two methods with different approaches are experimentally evaluated using an electrical steering column lock system. The two methods are an adapted FFA, functional failure analysis, method based on induction with generic failure modes and a method from ESA based on induction with generic low level hazards. In the evaluation, interviews and questionnaires are used to triangulate the results. Both methods are found to be applicable for hazard identification in the automotive system context. The experiments conducted also show, with statistical significance, that the adapted FFA method is less time consuming and easier to use than the ESA method. Hence, the FFA method is found to be more suitable for hazard identification in early phases of development in this context.


Hazard Analysis Hazard Identification Engineering Judgment Early Design Phase Automotive Domain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    International Electro-technical Commission: IEC-61508: Functional safety of electrical / electronic / programmable electronic safety-related Systems. IEC (1998)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Storey, N.: Safety-Critical Computer Systems. Addison Wesley Longman, Essex (1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The Motor Industry Software Reliability Association: Development Guidelines for Vehicle Based Software. MISRA (1994)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    International Organization for Standardization: ISO WD 26262, ISO (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Society of Automotive Engineers: ARP-4761: Aerospace Recommended Practice: Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment. SAE (1996)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    UK Ministry of Defence: HAZOP Studies on Systems Containing Programmable Electronics, UK Ministry of Defence, Glasgow (2000) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    European Space Agency: PSS-01-403: Hazard Analysis and Safety Risk Assessment, ESA (1989)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Johannessen, P., Grante, C., Alminger, A., Eklund, U.: Hazard Analysis in Object Oriented Design of Dependable Systems. In: Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Levesons, N.: Safeware: System Safety and Computers. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading (1995)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Papadopoulos, Y., McDermid, J.A.: Hierarchically Performed Hazard Origin and Propagation Studies. In: Felici, M., Kanoun, K., Pasquini, A. (eds.) SAFECOMP 1999. LNCS, vol. 1698. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wohlin, C., Runeson, P., Höst, M., Ohlsson, M.C., Regnell, B., Wesslén, A.: Experimentation in Software Engineering. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell (2000)MATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johannessen, P., Törner, F., Torin, J.: Actuator Based Hazard Analysis for Safety Critical Systems. In: Heisel, M., Liggesmeyer, P., Wittmann, S. (eds.) SAFECOMP 2004. LNCS, vol. 3219, pp. 130–141. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Törner, F.: Hazard Identification Methods. Technical Report no: 2006:11 Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fredrik Törner
    • 1
  • Per Johannessen
    • 1
  • Peter Öhman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department 94120Volvo Car CorporationGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Chalmers University of TechnologyGothenburgSweden

Personalised recommendations