Visual Servoing for Intraoperative Positioning and Repositioning of Mobile C-arms

  • Nassir Navab
  • Stefan Wiesner
  • Selim Benhimane
  • Ekkehard Euler
  • Sandro Michael Heining
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4190)


The problem of positioning mobile C-arms, e.g. for down the beam techniques, as well as repositioning during surgical procedures currently requires time, skill and additional radiation. This paper uses a Camera-Augmented Mobile C-arm (CAMC) to speed up the procedure, simplify its execution and reduce the necessary radiation. For positioning the C-arm in down-the-beam position, the pre-operative diagnostic CT is used for defining the axis. Additional CT visible markers on patient’s skin allow the CAMC’s optical camera to compute the C-arm’s pose and its required displacement for positioning. In the absence of electronically controlled mobile C-arms, the system provides step-by-step guidance to surgical staff until the final position is achieved. At this point, the surgeon can acquire an X-ray to ensure the correct positioning. In the case of intra-operative repositioning, no pre-operative CT is required. X-ray/Optical markers allow the visual servoing algorithm to guide the surgical staff in C-arm repositioning using CAMC’s optical camera. This work paves the path for many possible applications of visual servoing in C-arm positioning and in surgical navigation. Experiments on phantom and a cadaver study demonstrate the advantages of the new methods.


Pedicle Screw Augmented Reality Target Image Visual Servoing Forward Kinematic 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nassir Navab
    • 1
  • Stefan Wiesner
    • 1
  • Selim Benhimane
    • 1
  • Ekkehard Euler
    • 2
  • Sandro Michael Heining
    • 2
  1. 1.Chair for Computer Aided Medical Procedures (CAMP)TU MunichGermany
  2. 2.Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik – InnenstadtLMU MunichGermany

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