New 4-D Imaging for Real-Time Intraoperative MRI: Adaptive 4-D Scan
Aiming at real-time 3-D visualization of organ motion to navigate surgical procedures in MRI-guided surgery, a new 4-D MR imaging technique called “Adaptive 4-D Scan” has been proposed. The technique is designed to acquire a time series of volumetric 3-D images (4-D image) of cyclically moving organ, even in a low-field open-configuration MR scanner. A pre-operative 4-D image is acquired with respiratory phase parameter, which is monitored by using navigator-echo-based real-time tracking of the liver and diaphragm. During operation, the respiratory phase is again monitored in real-time, and a 3-D image, reflecting the current state of the target organ, is extracted from the pre-operative 4-D image and provided to physicians as a pseudo real-time 3-D image. We implemented Adaptive 4-D Scan into a 0.5 Tesla open-configuration clinical MRI system for intervention. Phantom and volunteer studies were performed to assess feasibility of this technique, in terms of image quality, imaging time and position accuracy of the imaged subject. A 4-D image (matrix: 256×128×10×8) of cyclically moving phantom was acquired in 719 s, and RMS position error between the imaged subject and the real subject was 2.3 mm, where the range of motion was 50 mm. 4-D image of the moving liver was also successfully acquired under near clinical condition. In conclusion, the study shows that the proposed method is feasible and has capability to provide real-time dynamic 3-D atlas for surgical navigation.
KeywordsPosition Error Imaging Time Phantom Study Volunteer Study Surgical Navigation
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