Representing Contextualized Information in the NSDL

  • Carl Lagoze
  • Dean Krafft
  • Tim Cornwell
  • Dean Eckstrom
  • Susan Jesuroga
  • Chris Wilper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4172)


The NSDL (National Science Digital Library) is funded by the National Science Foundation to advance science and math education. The initial product was a metadata-based digital library providing search and access to distributed resources. Our recent work recognizes the importance of context – relations, metadata, annotations – for the pedagogical value of a digital library. This new architecture uses Fedora, a tool for representing complex content, data, metadata, web-based services, and semantic relationships, as the basis of an information network overlay (INO). The INO provides an extensible knowledge base for an expanding suite of digital library services.


Digital Library Digital Object Resource Index Structure Metadata Metadata Format 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Annotation Metadata Overview,
  2. 2.
    Abbas, J., Norris, C., Soloway, E.: Middle School Children’s Use of the ARTEMIS Digital Library. In: ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL 2002), Portland, OR, pp. 98–105. ACM Press, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andersen, D.G., Balakrishnan, H., Kaashoek, M.F.: Resilient Overlay Networks. In: 18th ACM SOSP, Banff, Canada (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bekaert, J., Hochstenbach, P., Van de Sompel, H.: Using MPEG-21 DIDL to Represent Complex Digital Objects in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Digital Library. D-Lib Magazine 9(11)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bush, V.F.: As We May Think Atlantic Monthly (1945)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chad, K., Miller, P.: Do Libraries Matter? The rise of Library 2.0,
  7. 7.
    Collis, B., Strijker, A.: Technology and Human Issues in Reusing Learning. Journal of Interactive Media in Education 4 (Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Constantopoulos, P., Doerr, M., Theodoridou, M., et al.: On Information Organization in Annotation Systems. In: Grieser, G., Tanaka, Y. (eds.) Intuitive Human Interface 2004. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3359, pp. 189–200. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dean, M., Connolly, D., van Harmelen, F., et al.: OWL Web Ontology Language 1.0 Reference. W3C Working Draft, 20020729Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diekema, A., Chen, J.: Experimenting with the Automatic Assignment of Educational Standards to Digital Library Content. In: Joint Conference of Digital Libraries (JCDL), Denver (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Faaborg, A., Lagoze, C.: Semantic Browsing. LNCS, pp. 70–81. Springer, Trondheim (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huynh, D., Mazzocchi, S., Karger, D.: Piggy bank: Experience the semantic web inside your web browser. In: Gil, Y., Motta, E., Benjamins, V.R., Musen, M.A. (eds.) ISWC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3729, pp. 413–430. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kahan, J., Koivunen, M.-R., Prud’Hommeaux, E., et al.: Annotea: An Open RDF Infrastructure for Shared Web Annotations. In: WWW10, Hong Kong (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lagoze, C., Arms, W., Gan, S., et al.: Core Services in the Architecture of the National Digital Library for Science Education (NSDL). In: Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, Portland, Oregon. ACM/IEEE (2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lagoze, C., Krafft, D., Cornwell, T., et al.: Metadata aggregation and ”automated digital libraries”: A retrospective on the NSDL experience. In: Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, Chapel Hill, NC. ACM, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lagoze, C., Krafft, D.B., Payette, S., et al.: What Is a Digital Library Anyway? Beyond Search and Access in the NSDL. D-Lib Magazine 11(11)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lagoze, C., Payette, S., Shin, E., et al.: Fedora: An Architecture for Complex Objects and their Relationships. International Journal of Digital Libraries (December 2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Library of Congress, METS: An Overview & Tutorial,
  19. 19.
    Marshall, B., Zhang, Y., Chen, H., et al.: Convergence of Knowledge Management and ELearning: the GetSmart Experience. In: ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL 2003), Houston, TX, pp. 135–146. ACM Press, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marshall, C.C.: Annotation: from paper books to the digital library. In: Digital Libraries 1997. ACM Press, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Martin, K.: Learning in Context Issues of Teaching and Learning (1998)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    McCalla, G.: The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose- based Capture and Use of the Information about Learners. Journal of Interactive Media in Education 7 (Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    McMartin, F., Terada, Y.: Digital Library Services for Authors of Learning Materials. In: ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL 2002), Portland, OR, pp. 117–118. ACM Press, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Motta, E., Shum, S.B., Domingue, J.: ScholOnto: an ontology-based digital library server for research documents and discourse. International Journal on Digital Libraries 3(3)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    O’Reilly, T.: What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software,
  26. 26.
    Parrish, P.: The Trouble with Learning Objects. Educational Technology Research and Development 52(1), 49-67Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Recker, M., Dorward, J., Dawson, D., et al.: Teaching, Designing, and Sharing: A Context for Learning Objects. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects 1, 197-216Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Recker, M., Dorward, J., Nelson, L.M.: Discovery and Use of Online Learning Resources: Case Study Findings. Educational Technology and Society 7(2), 93-104Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Recker, M., Walker, A.: Collaboratively filtering learning objects. In: Wiley, D.A. (ed.) Designing Instruction with Learning Objects (2000)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reeves, T.C.: The Impact of Media and Technology in Schools: A Research Report prepared for The Bertelsmann Foundation,
  31. 31.
    Roscheisen, M., Mogensen, C., Winograd, T.: Shared Web Annotations as a Platform for Third-Party Value-Added, Information Providers: Architecture, Protocols, and Usage Examples. Technical Report, CS-TR-97-1582Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Surowiecki, J.: The wisdom of crowds: why the many are smarter than the few and how collective wisdom shapes business, economies, societies, and nations. Doubleday, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Unmil, P.K., Francisco-Revilla, L., Furuta, R.K., et al.: Evolution of the Walden’s Paths Authoring Tools. In: Webnet 2000, San Antonio, TX (2000)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wilensky, R.: Digital library resources as a basis for collaborative work. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51(3), 228-245Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wolfe, J.L.: Effects of Annotations on Student Readers and Writers. In: Fifth ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries, San Antonio, TX (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl Lagoze
    • 1
  • Dean Krafft
    • 1
  • Tim Cornwell
    • 1
  • Dean Eckstrom
    • 1
  • Susan Jesuroga
    • 2
  • Chris Wilper
    • 1
  1. 1.Computing and Information ScienceCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  2. 2.UCAR-NSDLBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations