Evolving Novel and Effective Treatment Plans in the Context of Infection Dynamics Models: Illustrated with HIV and HAART Therapy
Several diseases involve complex interplay between an infection and the body’s defences. Concerning AIDS, for example, this corresponds to developments in the immune system’s responses and the HIV virus’ counter-responses. Treatment for such diseases involves, at specific times, delivery of an agent that inhibits the infection. We hypothesise that: given a credible model of the combined dynamics of infection and response, the timing and quantities involved in treatment can be valuably investigated using that model. In particular, we investigate searching for optimised treatment plans with an evolutionary algorithm (EA). Our test case is a cellular automaton (CA) model of HIV dynamics, extended to incorporate HAART therapy (a favoured HIV treatment).An EA is wrapped around this model, and searches for treatments that maximally delay onset of AIDS, given certain constraints. We find that significant improvements over default HAART strategy are readily discovered in this way.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Cellular Automaton Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment Human Immunodeficiency Virus Virus
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Garrett, L.: New View of How HIV Works (1995), http://ww2.aegis.org/news/newsday/1995/
- 2.The national institute of infectious diseases fact sheet, http://www.albany.edu/AIDS/howhiv.html
- 3.Frost, K.R.: Amfar AIDS research, http://www.amfar.org/cgi-bin/iowa/bridge.html
- 5.Medic Eric, S., Daar, M.D., Jay, W., Marks, M.D.: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Management) (2004), http://www.medicinenet.com/human_immunodeficiency_virus_hiv_aids/article.htm
- 7.Kirschner, D.: Using Mathematics to Understand HIV Immune Dynamics (1996), http://www.cnd.mcgill.ca/courses_mackey/pdf%20files/kirschner.pdf
- 11.dos Santos, R., Coutinho, S.: Dynamics of HIV Infection: A Cellular Automata Approach. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(16), 4 (2001) 168102-1Google Scholar
- 12.Strain, M.C., Levine, H.: Comment on Dynamics of HIV infection: a cellular automata approach. Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21) (2002) 219805Google Scholar
- 13.Corne, D., Frisco, P.: Dynamics of HIV Infection studied with cellular automata and conformon-P systems, Biosystems (submitted, 2006)Google Scholar
- 14.Knowles, J.D., Corne, D.W., Bishop, M.: Evolutionary Training of Artificial Neural Networks for Radiotherapy Treatment of Cancers. In: Proc. 1998 International Conference on Evolutionary Computation (ICEC 1998), pp. 398–403 (1998)Google Scholar
- 19.Holland, J.: Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. U. of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor (1975)Google Scholar
- 22.Pantaleo, G., Graziozi, G., Fauci, A.S.: New England J. Medicine, 328(327) (1993)Google Scholar
- 23.Coffey, S.: Structured Treatment Interruption (STI) HIV InSite’s Coverage of the 10th Conf. on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (2003) HIV InSite: http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=cf10croi-04