Investigation of Reality Constraints: Morphology and Controller of Two-Link Legged Locomotors for Dynamically Stable Locomotion

  • Kojiro Matsushita
  • Hiroshi Yokoi
  • Tamio Arai
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4095)


In this paper, we purpose to reveal effective design components for morphological functionality and reality constraints by analyzing simple locomotors in both virtual and real worlds. Firstly, we assumed that human experiences and techniques contained important design components so that we conducted edutainment course to acquire locomotors, which were heuristically designed. Then, we analyzed two remarkable locomotors in both virtual and real worlds. As a result, we have known that symmetrical design played an important role on dynamically stable locomotion because its design enabled to exploit its own dynamics as passive dynamics and also widened its controllability. Addition to it, the locomotors in both virtual and real worlds demonstrated similar characteristics.


Ground Reaction Force Design Component Morphological Functionality Symmetrical Design Bipedal Locomotion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alexander, R.: Principles of Animal Locomotion. Princeton University Press, New Jersey (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Komi, P.V., Gollhofer, A., Schmidtbleicher, D., Frick, U.: Interaction between man and shoe in running: considerations for a more comprehensive measurement approach. Int. J. of Sports Medicine 8, 196–202 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McGeer, T.: Passive dynamic walking. Int. J. Robotics Research 9(2), 62–82 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lipson, H., Pollack, J.B.: Automatic design and Manufacture of Robotic Lifeforms. Nature 406, 974–978 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pfeifer, R., Scheier, C.: Understanding Intelligence. MIT Press, Cambridge (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Raibert, M.H.: Legged Robots That Balance. MIT Press, Cambridge (1986)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sims, K.: Evolving 3D morphology and behavior by competition. In: Brooks, R., Maes, P. (eds.) Artificial Life IV Proceedings, pp. 28–39. MIT Press, Cambridge (1994)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Smith, R.: Open Dynamics Engine (2000), URL:
  9. 9.
    Vukobratovic, M., Juricie, D.: Contribution to the synthesis of biped gait. IEEE Tran. On Bio-Medical Engineering 16(1), 1–6 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kojiro Matsushita
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Yokoi
    • 1
  • Tamio Arai
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Precision EngineeringThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations