Advertisement

MPML3D: A Reactive Framework for the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language

  • Michael Nischt
  • Helmut Prendinger
  • Elisabeth André
  • Mitsuru Ishizuka
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4133)

Abstract

MPML3D is our first candidate of the next generation of authoring languages aimed at supporting digital content creators in providing highly appealing and highly interactive content with little effort. The language is based on our previously developed family of Multimodal Presentation Markup Languages (MPML) that broadly followed the “sequential” and “parallel” tagging structure scheme for generating pre-synchronized presentations featuring life-like characters and interactions with the user. The new markup language MPML3D deviates from this design framework and proposes a reactive model instead, which is apt to handle interaction-rich scenarios with highly realistic 3D characters. Interaction in previous versions of MPML could be handled only at the cost of considerable scripting effort due to branching. By contrast, MPML3D advocates a reactive model that allows perceptions of other characters or the user interfere with the presentation flow at any time, and thus facilitates natural and unrestricted interaction. MPML3D is designed as a powerful and flexible language that is easy-to-use by non-experts, but it is also extensible as it allows content creators to add functionality such as a narrative model by using popular scripting languages.

Keywords

Markup Language Interactive Presentation Content Author Embody Conversational Agent Music Collection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allbeck, J., Badler, N.: Representing and parameterizing agent behaviors. In: Prendinger, Ishizuka (eds.) [14], pp. 19–38Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    André, E., Rist, T., van Mulken, S., Klesen, M., Baldes, S.: The automated design of believable dialogue for animated presentation teams. In: Cassell, J., Sullivan, J., Prevost, S., Churchill, E. (eds.) Embodied Conversational Agents, pp. 220–255. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arafa, Y., Kamyab, K., Mamdani, E.: Towards a unified scripting language. Lessons learned from developing CML & AML. In: Prendinger, Ishizuka (eds.) [14], pp. 39–63Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bee, N., Prendinger, H., Nakasone, A., André, E., Ishizuka, M.: AutoSelect: What You Want Is What You Get: Real-Time Processing of Visual Attention and Affect. In: André, E., Dybkjær, L., Minker, W., Neumann, H., Weber, M. (eds.) PIT 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4021, pp. 40–52. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carolis, B.D., Pelauchaud, C., Poggi, I., Steedman, M.: APML: Mark-up language for communicative character expressions. In: Prendinger, Ishizuka (eds.) [14], pp. 65–85Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cassell, J., Vilhjálmsson, H., Bickmore, T.: BEAT: the Behavior Expression Animation Toolkit. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001, pp. 477–486 (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gebhard, P., Kipp, M., Klesen, M., Rist, T.: Authoring scenes for adaptive, interactive performances. In: Proceedings of 2nd International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (AAMAS 2003), pp. 725–732. ACM Press, New York (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ishizuka, M., Prendinger, H.: Describing and generating multimodal contents featuring affective lifelike agents with MPML. New Generation Computing 24, 97–128 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kopp, S., Jung, B., Lessmann, N., Wachsmuth, I.: Max – a multimodal assistant in virtual reality construction. KI Zeitschift (German Magazine of Artificial Intelligence) Special Issue on Embodied Conversational Agents 4, 11–17 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: A Behavior Language: Joint action and behavioral idioms. In: Prendinger, Ishizuka (eds.) [14], pp. 19–38Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nischt, M., Prendinger, H., André, E., Ishizuka, M.: Creating three-dimensional animated characters: An experience report and recommendations of good practice. Upgrade. The European Journal for the Informatics Professional VII(2), 36–41 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Piwek, P., Krenn, B., Schröder, M., Grice, M., Baumann, S., Pirker, H.: RRL: a rich representation language for the description of agent behavior in NECA. In: Proceedings AAMAS 2002 Workshop on Embodied conversational agents—let’s specify and evaluate them! (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prendinger, H., Descamps, S., Ishizuka, M.: MPML: A markup language for controlling the behavior of life-like characters. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing 15(2), 183–203 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Prendinger, H., Ishizuka, M. (eds.): Life-Like Characters. Tools, Affective Functions, and Applications. Cognitive Technologies. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rist, T.: Issues in the design of scripting and representation languages for life-like characters. In: Prendinger, Ishizuka (eds.) [14], pp. 463–468Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rist, T., André, E., Baldes, S., Gebhard, P., Klesen, M., Kipp, M., Rist, P., Schmitt, M.: A review of the development of embodied presentation agents and their appication fields. In: Prendinger, Ishizuka (eds.) [14], pp. 377–404Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ruttkay, Z., Huang, Z., Eliens, A.: Reusable Gestures for Interactive Web Agents. In: Rist, T., Aylett, R.S., Ballin, D., Rickel, J. (eds.) IVA 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2792, pp. 80–87. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    SMIL. Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language, URL: http://www.w3.org/AudioVideo

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Nischt
    • 1
  • Helmut Prendinger
    • 2
  • Elisabeth André
    • 1
  • Mitsuru Ishizuka
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Computer ScienceUniversity of AugsburgAugsburgGermany
  2. 2.National Institute of InformaticsTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Information Science and TechnologyUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations