Passage Filtering for Open-Domain Question Answering

  • Elisa Noguera
  • Fernando Llopis
  • Antonio Ferrández
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4139)


This paper studies the problem of filtering data in Passage Retrieval applied to Question Answering. Specifically, in this paper we have proved that the Mean-Value Theorem can play an important role to improve Question Answering. We have studied the way in which this theorem can be applied in order to produce a maximum data reduction without precision loss. In the experiments, we achieve a 90% data reduction without significant data loss.


Information Retrieval Correct Answer Natural Language Processing Question Answering Question Answering System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Roger, S., et al.: AliQAn, Spanish QA System at CLEF 2005. In: Proceedings of Cross Language Evaluation Forum (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Narayanan, S., Harabagiu, S.: Question answering based on semantic structures. In: Proceedings of COLING 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baeza-Yates, R.A., Ribeiro-Neto, B.A.: Modern Information Retrieval. ACM Press / Addison-Wesley (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaszkiel, M., Zobel, J., Sacks-Davis, R.: Efficient passage ranking for document databases. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Monz, C.: From Document Retrieval to Question Answering. PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tiedemann, J.: Improving Passage Retrieval in Question Answering Using NLP. In: Bento, C., Cardoso, A., Dias, G. (eds.) EPIA 2005. LNCS, vol. 3808, pp. 634–646. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Usunier, N., Amini, M., Gallinari, P.: Boosting Weak Ranking Functions to Enhance Passage Retrieval for Question Answering. In: Proceedings of Workshop on Information Retrieval for Question Answering (IR4QA) SIGIR 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gaizauskas, R., Hepple, M., Greenwood, M.: Workshop on Information Retrieval for Question Answering (IR4QA). In: Proceedings of SIGIR 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tadashi, T.: A Mean Value Theorem. The american mathematical monthly 106(7), 673 (1999)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fleischman, M., Hovy, E.H., Echihabi, A.: Offline Strategies for Online Question Answering: Answering Questions Before They Are Asked. In: Proceedings of ACL, pp. 1–7 (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kise, K., Junker, M., Dengel, A., Matsumoto, K.: Passage Retrieval Based on Density Distributions of Terms and Its Applications to Document Retrieval and Question Answering. In: Reading and Learning, pp. 306–327 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ferret, O., Grau, B., Hurault-Plantet, M., Illouz, G., Jacquemin, C.: Document Selection Refinement based on linguistic features for QALC, a Question Answering System. In: Proceedings of Recent Advances on Natural Language Processing RANLP 2001, Bulgaria (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ferret, O., Grau, B., Illouz, G., Jacquemin, C., Masson, N.: QALC - the Question-Answering program of the Language and Cognition group at LIMSI-CNRS. In: Proceedings of TREC (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Peters, C., Gey, F.C., Gonzalo, J., Müller, H., Jones, G.J.F., Kluck, M., Magnini, B., de Rijke, M., Giampiccolo, D. (eds.): CLEF 2005. LNCS, vol. 4022. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Llopis, F., Noguera, E.: Combining Passages in the Monolingual Task with the IR-n System. In: Peters, C., Gey, F.C., Gonzalo, J., Müller, H., Jones, G.J.F., Kluck, M., Magnini, B., de Rijke, M., Giampiccolo, D. (eds.) CLEF 2005. LNCS, vol. 4022, pp. 204–207. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Roberston, S., Walker, S., Beaulieu, M.: OKAPi at TREC-7. In: Proceedings of Seventh Text RETrieval Conference, vol. 500-242, pp. 253–264. National Institute of Standard and Technology, Gaithersburg (1998)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    TREC: Overview of the TREC 2005 question answering track. In: Voorhees, E.M. (ed.) Proceedings of TREC 2005 (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roberts, I., Gaizauskas, R.: Evaluating Passage Retrieval Approaches for Question Answering. In: McDonald, S., Tait, J.I. (eds.) ECIR 2004. LNCS, vol. 2997, pp. 72–84. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisa Noguera
    • 1
  • Fernando Llopis
    • 1
  • Antonio Ferrández
    • 1
  1. 1.Grupo de investigación en Procesamiento del Lenguaje Natural y Sistemas de Información, Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas InformáticosUniversity of AlicanteSpain

Personalised recommendations