Structure Analysis Based Parking Slot Marking Recognition for Semi-automatic Parking System
Semi-automatic parking system is a driver convenience system automating steering control required during parking operation. This paper proposes novel monocular-vision based target parking-slot recognition by recognizing parking-slot markings when driver designates a seed-point inside the target parking-slot with touch screen. Proposed method compensates the distortion of fisheye lens and constructs a bird’s eye view image using homography. Because adjacent vehicles are projected along the outward direction from camera in the bird’s eye view image, if marking line-segment distinguishing parking-slots from roadway and front-ends of marking line-segments dividing parking-slots are observed, proposed method successfully recognizes the target parking-slot marking. Directional intensity gradient, utilizing the width of marking line-segment and the direction of seed-point with respect to camera position as a prior knowledge, can detect marking line-segments irrespective of noise and illumination variation. Making efficient use of the structure of parking-slot markings in the bird’s eye view image, proposed method simply recognizes the target parking-slot marking. It is validated by experiments that proposed method can successfully recognize target parking-slot under various situations and illumination conditions.
KeywordsStereo Vision Local Window Fisheye Lens Electric Power Steering Undistorted Image
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Bishop, R.: Intelligent Vehicle Technology and Trends. Artech House Pub. (2005)Google Scholar
- 2.Frank, R.: Sensing in the Ultimately Safe Vehicle, SAE Paper No.: 2004-21-0055, Society of Automotive Engineers (2004)Google Scholar
- 3.Schanz, A., et al.: Autonomous Parking in Subterranean Garages – A Look at the Position Estimation. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, pp. 253–258 (2003)Google Scholar
- 5.Furutani, M.: Obstacle Detection Systems for Vehicle Safety, SAE Paper No.: 2004-21-0057, Society of Automotive Engineers (2004)Google Scholar
- 6.Kaempchen, N., et al.: Stereo Vision Based Estimation of Parking Lots Using 3D Vehicle Models. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, vol. 2, pp. 459–464 (2002)Google Scholar
- 7.Xu, J., et al.: Vision-Guided Automatic Parking for Smart Car. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, pp. 725–730 (2000)Google Scholar
- 9.Vestri, C., et al.: Evaluation of a Vision-Based Parking Assistance System. In: IEEE Conf. Intelligent Transportation Systems, pp. 56–60 (2005)Google Scholar
- 11.Bouguet, J.Y.: Camera Calibration Toolbox for Matlab, http://www.vision.caltech.edu/bouguetj/calib_doc/index.html
- 12.Key, S.M.: Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing. Estimation Theory, vol. I, pp. 193–195. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1993)Google Scholar