On Multiprocessor Utility Accrual Real-Time Scheduling with Statistical Timing Assurances

  • Hyeonjoong Cho
  • Haisang Wu
  • Binoy Ravindran
  • E. Douglas Jensen
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4096)


We present the first Utility Accrual (or UA) real-time scheduling algorithm for multiprocessors, called gMUA. The algorithm considers an application model where real-time activities are subject to time/utility function time constraints, variable execution time demands, and resource overloads where the total activity utilization demand exceeds the total capacity of all processors. We establish several properties of gMUA including optimal total utility (for a special case), conditions under which individual activity utility lower bounds are satisfied, a lower bound on system-wide total accrued utility, and bounded sensitivity for assurances to variations in execution time demand estimates. Our simulation experiments confirm our analysis and illustrate the algorithm’s effectiveness.


Execution Time Schedule Algorithm Task Execution Time Task Utilization Utilization Demand 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Anderson, J., Bud, V., Devi, U.C.: An edf-based scheduling algorithm for multiprocessor soft real-time systems. In: IEEE ECRTS, pp. 199–208 (July 2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baker, T.P.: Multiprocessor edf and deadline monotonic schedulability analysis. In: IEEE RTSS, December 2003, pp. 120–129 (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baruah, S., Cohen, N., Plaxton, C.G., Varvel, D.: Proportionate progress: A notion of fairness in resource allocation. In: Algorithmica, vol. 15, p. 600 (1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bertogna, M., Cirinei, M., Lipari, G.: Improved schedulability analysis of edf on multiprocessor platforms. In: IEEE ECRTS, pp. 209–218 (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clark, R.K.: Scheduling Dependent Real-Time Activities. PhD thesis, Carnegie Mellon University (1990)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clark, R.K., Jensen, E.D., et al.: An adaptive, distributed airborne tracking system. In: IEEE WPDRTS (April 1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clark, R.K., Jensen, E.D., Rouquette, N.F.: Software organization to facilitate dynamic processor scheduling. In: IEEE WPDRTS (April 2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Devi, U.C., Anderson, J.: Tardiness bounds for global edf scheduling on a multiprocessor. In: IEEE RTSS 2005 (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dhall, S.K., Liu, C.L.: On a real-time scheduling problem. Operations Research 26(1), 127–140 (1978)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goossens, J., Funk, S., Baruah, S.: Priority-driven scheduling of periodic tasks systems on multiprocessors. Real-Time Systems 25(2-3), 187–205 (2003)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holman, P., Anderson, J.H.: Adapting pfair scheduilng for symmetric multiprocessors. Journal of Embedded Computing (to appear)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jensen, E.D., Locke, C.D., Tokuda, H.: A time-driven scheduling model for real-time systems. In: IEEE RTSS, December 1985, pp. 112–122 (1985)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maynard, D.P., et al.: An example real-time command, control, and battle management application for alpha. Technical report, CMU CS Dept, Archons Project TR 88121 (December 1988)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Srinivasan, A., Anderson, J.: Efficient scheduling of soft real-time applications on multiprocessors. In: IEEE ECRTS, July 2003, pp. 51–59 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zapata, O.U.P., Alvarez, P.M.: Edf and rm multiprocessor scheduling algorithms: Survey and performance evaluation (Last accessed October 2005),
  16. 16.
    Zhang, X., Wang, Z., et al.: System support for automated profiling and optimization. In: ACM SOSP, October 1997, pp. 15–26 (1997)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyeonjoong Cho
    • 1
  • Haisang Wu
    • 2
  • Binoy Ravindran
    • 1
  • E. Douglas Jensen
    • 3
  1. 1.ECE Dept.Virginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Juniper Networks, Inc.SunnyvaleUSA
  3. 3.The MITRE CorporationBedfordUSA

Personalised recommendations