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How Far Can We Go on the x64 Processors?

  • Mitsuru Matsui
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4047)

Abstract

This paper studies the state-of-the-art software optimization methodology for symmetric cryptographic primitives on the new 64-bit x64 processors, AMD Athlon64 (AMD64) and Intel Pentium 4 (EM64T). We fully utilize newly introduced 64-bit registers and instructions for extracting maximal performance of target primitives. Our program of AES with 128-bit key runs in 170 cycles/block on Athlon 64, which is, as far as we know, the fastest implementation of AES on a PC processor.

Also we implemented a “bitsliced” AES and Camellia for the first time, both of which achieved very good performance. A bitslice implementation is important from the viewpoint of a countermeasure against cache timing attacks because it does not require lookup tables with a key-dependent address. We also analyze performance of SHA256/512 and Whirlpool hash functions and show that SHA512 can run faster than SHA256 on Athlon 64. This paper exhibits an undocumented fact that 64-bit right shifts and 64-bit rotations are extremely slow on Pentium 4, which often leads to serious and unavoidable performance penalties in programming encryption primitives on this processor.

Keywords

Fast Software Encryption x64 Processors Bitslice 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitsuru Matsui
    • 1
  1. 1.Information Technology R&D Center, Mitsubishi Electric CorporationJapan

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