Reducing the Space Complexity of BDD-Based Attacks on Keystream Generators

  • Matthias Krause
  • Dirk Stegemann
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4047)

Abstract

The main application of stream ciphers is online-encryption of arbitrarily long data, for example when transmitting speech data between a Bluetooth headset and a mobile GSM phone or between the phone and a GSM base station. Many practically used and intensively discussed stream ciphers such as the E 0 generator used in Bluetooth and the GSM cipher A5/1 consist of a small number of linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) that transform a secret key x∈{0,1} n into an output keystream of arbitrary length. In 2002, Krause proposed a Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) based attack on this type of ciphers, which in the case of E 0 is the best short-keystream attack known so far. However, BDD-attacks generally require a large amount of memory. In this paper, we show how to substantially reduce the memory consumption by divide-and-conquer strategies and present the first comprehensive experimental results for the BDD-attack on reduced versions of E 0, A5/1 and the self-shrinking generator.

Keywords

Stream cipher cryptanalysis BDD Bluetooth E0 GSM A5/1 self-shrinking generator 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthias Krause
    • 1
  • Dirk Stegemann
    • 1
  1. 1.Theoretical Computer ScienceUniversity of MannheimGermany

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