Advertisement

A GOMS Model for Keyboard Navigation in Web Pages and Web Applications

  • Martin Schrepp
  • Patrick Fischer
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4061)

Abstract

An unlimited keyboard support is one of the main accessibility requirements for web pages and web applications. But it is not sufficient that the user can perform all actions on the page using the keyboard. In addition designers of web sites or web applications have to make sure that keyboard users can use their pages with acceptable performance. We present GOMS models for mouse and keyboard navigation in web pages and web applications. These models can be used to compare keyboard navigation with mouse navigation. Such a comparison allows us to decide if the amount of keyboard support for a web page or web application is sufficient or if there is an unacceptable disadvantage for keyboard users.

Keywords

Navigation Task Blind User Disable User Target Link Instruction Page 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chrisholm, W., Vanderheiden, G., Jacobs, I.: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 (1999), Available online under http://www.w3c.org/TR/WCAG10/
  2. 2.
    US Department of Justice. Section 508 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act, Available online under http://www.section508.gov/
  3. 3.
    Schrepp, M., Jani, R.: Efficient keyboard support in web-pages. In: Pruski, A., Knops, H. (eds.) Assistive Technology: From Virtuality to Reality, pp. S504–S508. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jani, R., Schrepp, M.: Influence of Accessibility Related Activities on the Usability of the Business Software. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Burger, D. (eds.) ICCHP 2004. LNCS, vol. 3118, pp. 52–59. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Keates, S., Clarkson, P.J., Coy, J., Robinson, P.: Universal Access in the work-place: A case study. In: Proceedings of the 5th ERCIM Workshop, Dagstuhl, Germany, pp. 73–80 (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bühler, C., Stephanidis, C.: European Co-operation Activities Promoting Design for All in information Society Technologies. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Burger, D. (eds.) ICCHP 2004. LNCS, vol. 3118, pp. 80–87. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stephanidis, C., Salvendy, G.: Towards an information society for all: HCI challenges and R&D recommendations. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 11(1), 1–28 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Disability Rights Commission: The Web Access and Inclusion for Disabled People. A formal investigation conducted by the Disability Rights Commission, TSO, London (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cooper, A.: About Face: The essentials of User Interface Design. IDG Books, Foster City (1995)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nielsen, J.: Novice vs. Expert Users. In: Useit.com - Usable Information Technology (2000), Available online under http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20000206.html
  11. 11.
    ISO 9241-11: Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals - Part 11: Guidance on usability. Genf: International Organization for Standardization (1998)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Card, S.K., Moran, T.P., Newell, A.: The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction, Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1983)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    John, B.E., Kieras, D.E.: The GOMS family of user interface analysis techniques: Comparison and Contrast. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 3(4), 320–351 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kieras, D.: A Guide to GOMS Model Usability Evaluation using NGOMSL. In: Helander, M., Landauer, T.K., Pradhu, P. (eds.) Handbook of Human-Computer Interactions, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1997)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Olson, J.R., Olson, G.M.: The growth of cognitive modelling in human-computer interactions since GOMS. Human-Computer Interaction 5, 221–265 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eichstädt, H.: Interaktionen blinder Nutzer bei der Bedienung linearisierter Oberflächen [Interactions of blind persons during the usage of linearized user interfaces]. In: Stary, C. (ed.) Mensch & Computer 2005: Kunst und Wissenschaft – Grenzüberschreitungen der interaktiven ART, pp. 61–70. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Keates, S., Clarkson, P.J., Robinson, P.: Developing a methodology for the design of accessible interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 4’th ERCIM Workshop, Stockholm, Sweden (1998)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Schrepp
    • 1
  • Patrick Fischer
    • 2
  1. 1.SAP AGWalldorfGermany
  2. 2.University of MannheimGermany

Personalised recommendations