APL: Audio Programming Language for Blind Learners

  • Jaime Sánchez
  • Fernando Aguayo
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4061)


Programming skills are strongly emphasized in computer science. Programming languages are constructed based on sighted people as end-users. We have designed Audio Programming Language for blind learners based on audio interfaces to support novice blind learners to develop and exercise problem solving skills. APL was designed with blind learners from the beginning to construct programs and solve problems with increasingly complexity. Audio Programming Language was usability tested during and after implementation. Blind learners used, wrote programs, and helped to make improvements to this programming language. Testing results evidence that APL mapped the mental models of blind learners and helped to motivate them to write programs and thus entering to the programming field.


Command Line Java Code Visual Programming Blind User Blind Child 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baldis, J.: Effects of spatial audio on memory, comprehension, and preference during desktop conferences. In: Proceeding of the ACM CHI 2001, vol. 3(1), pp. 166–173 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cypher, A., Halbert, D.C., Kurlander, D., Lieberman, H., Maulsby, D., Mayers, B.A., Turransky, A.: Watch What I Do: Programming by Demonstration. The MIT Press, Cambridge (1993)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lieberman, H.: Your Wish Is My Command: Programming by Example. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    McCrindle, R., Symons, D.: Audio space invaders. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies, pp. 59–65 (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    McDaniel, R., Myers, B.: Getting more out of Programming-By-Demonstration. In: Proceedings of CHI 1999, pp. 442–449. ACM, Pittsburgh (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mereu, S., Kazman, R.: Audio enhanced 3D interfaces for visually impaired users. In: Proceedings of CHI 1996, pp. 72–78. ACM Press, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Montemayor, J.: Physical programming: software you can touch. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCHI, March 2001, pp. 81–82. ACM Press, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sánchez, J.: Interactive 3D sound hyperstories for blind children. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 1999, Pittsburg PA, pp. 318–325 (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sánchez, J.: AudioBattleShip: Blind learners’ collaboration through sound. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2003, Fort Lauderdale Florida, pp. 798–799 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sjostrom, C.: Using haptics in computer interfaces for blind people. In: Proceeding of the ACM CHI 2001, vol. 3(1), pp. 245–246 (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Siegfried, R.: A scripting language to help the blind to program visually. ACM SIGPLAN Notices 37(2), 53–56 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smith, A.C., Francioni, J.M., Matzek, S.D.: A Java Programming tool for students with visual disabilities. In: Proceedings of ACM ASSETS 2000, pp. 142–148 (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaime Sánchez
    • 1
  • Fernando Aguayo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of ChileSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations