Supporting Blind Students in Navigation and Manipulation of Mathematical Expressions: Basic Requirements and Strategies

  • Bernhard Stoeger
  • Mario Batusic
  • Klaus Miesenberger
  • Philipp Haindl
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4061)


In [10], the problems faced by a blind or visually impaired student in doing Mathematics were analyzed, and the basic ideas of a MAWEN (Mathematical Working Environment), a software solution to help overcome these pressing difficulties, were described. The present paper builds upon the latter one, refining the ideas sketched there. After a thorough description of the state of the art, we present some general considerations on the problems met by a blind pupil when navigating within mathematical expressions and when doing calculations. Finally, through several case studies taken from mainstream school books, strategies to provide computer aided support to overcome the problems are outlined.


Blind People School Book Navigation Support Side Calculation Sighted People 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Archambault, D.: UMCL Homepage. On-line resource (accessed April 11, 2006),
  2. 2.
    University of Tampere Finland Department of Computer Sciences, Tampere Unit for Computer-Human Interaction (TAUCHI). The MICOLE Project. On-line resource (accessed April 11, 2006),
  3. 3.
    Epheser, H., Prograniczna, D., Britz, K., Betz-Weitzel, B.: Neufassung und Vervollstaendigung des Systems der internationalen Mathematikschrift fuer Blinde. Marburger Systematiken der Blindenschrift. Deutsche Blindenstudienanstalt 6 (1986)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Faculty of Mathematics and Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu University, Japan. Infty Project Homepage. On-line resource: (accessed, April 11, 2006),
  5. 5.
    Henter Math LLC. Virtual Pencil Homepage. On-line resource: (accessed April 11, 2006)
  6. 6.
    Karshmer, A.: MathGenie Homepage (accessed April 11, 2006), On-line resource,
  7. 7.
    Lambda Consortium. Lamda Project Homepage. On-line resource (accessed April 11, 2006),
  8. 8.
    Miesenberger, K., Batusic, M., Stoeger, M.: LABRADOOR, a contribution to making mathematics accessible for the blind. In: Edwards, A., Arato, N., Zagler, W. (eds.) Computers and Assistive Technology - 6th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs ICCHP 1998, Oldenbourg, Wien, Muenchen (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nemeth, A.: The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation. American Printing House For the Blind, New York (1972)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stoeger, B., Miesenberger, K., Batusic, M.: Multimodal Interaction with Mathematical Formulae: Access, Communication and Support for Blind People in Doing Mathematics. L. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. (LEA), Mahwah (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stutzka, W.M.: Lebendige Mathematik 3, volume 1. OEBV/HPT Wien (2001), ISBN 3-209-03756-6Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    The Shodor Education Foundation Inc. BRL: Braille Through Remote Learning (April 2006), On-line resource: (accessed April 11, 2006),
  13. 13.
    Universitaet Karlsruhe, Studienzentrum fuer Sehgeschaedigte, Karlsruhe. ASCII-Mathematikschrift Karlsruhe/Dresden, On-line resource: (accessed April 11, 2006),
  14. 14.
    World Wide Web Consortium. MathML Homepage. On-line resource (accessed April 11, 2006),

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernhard Stoeger
    • 1
  • Mario Batusic
    • 1
  • Klaus Miesenberger
    • 1
  • Philipp Haindl
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Integrated StudyJohannes Kepler University LinzLinzAustria

Personalised recommendations