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Translating MathML into Nemeth Braille Code

  • Paul B. Stanley
  • Arthur I. Karshmer
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4061)

Abstract

An assistive software application has been created that translates math statements encoded as MathML into Nemeth Braille Code (NBC). This translation is conducted in two phases, the translation of the MathML elements into NBC, then the implementation of rules specific to Nemeth Braille that are irrelevant to MathML. All MathML elements holding semantically relevant information are translated by this program, including the nesting of elements to any level. Some of the syntactical rules inherent to NBC such as the use of the numeric indicator; additional space characters; and some contractions have also been implemented; other rules remain to be incorporated. The NBC can be exported in three ways (1) directly to a refreshable Braille device via a serial connection in real time; (2) saved as a text file then downloaded into a Braille device; and (3) save as a text file then embossed by a third party application. This application allows a person with no Braille experience to enter a math equation into any equation editor that can save that statement in the MathML format, and then convert that statement into Nemeth Braille Code for perusal by the visually impaired.

Keywords

Text File Math Statement Screen Reader Scalable Vector Graphic Party Application 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul B. Stanley
    • 1
  • Arthur I. Karshmer
    • 2
  1. 1.MathGenie ProjectUniversity of South FloridaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Information TechnologyUniversity of South FloridaUSA

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