Advertisement

A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Efficacy of Cognitive Intervention on Elderly People and on Patient’s with Alzheimer’s Disease

  • J. J. Yanguas
  • C. Buiza
  • I. Etxeberria
  • N. Galdona
  • M. F. González
  • E. Urdaneta
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4061)

Abstract

Research on non-pharmacological therapies (cognitive rehabilitation) in old age has been very limited, and most has not considered the effect of intervention of this type over extended periods of time. The aim of Donostia Longitudinal Study was to investigate a new cognitive therapy in a randomized, placebo-controlled group of elderly people over 65 years of age without cognitive deterioration or expressed AAMI (Age Associated Memory Impairment) and patients with a Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). The efficacy of this therapy was evaluated by means of post-hoc analysis of 390 people using biomedical, neuropsy-chological, affective, and personality assessments. In the GDS 1-2 grouping,scores for learning potential and different types of memory for the treatment group improved significantly relative to the untreated controls. While, subjects with a GDS 3-4 showed significantly better performance on Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) scores in all domains (anxiety, depression, apathy, sleep disturbances). Finally subjects with a GDS 5-6, showed a maintenance of cognitive capacities. In the GDS 1-2 grouping, the most significant result found is that learning potential of trained people enhances within two years of intervention, this involves a successful ageing sign and plays a preventive role in dementia development. On the other hand, in the GDS 3-4 and GDS 5-6 grouping, the behavioral disturbances diminished within this intervention, so this type of training program could be beneficial on them.

Keywords

Progressive Supranuclear Paralysis Cognitive Training Cognitive Intervention Cognitive Rehabilitation Cognitive Stimulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Eurostat yearbook 2004 The statistical guide to Europe - Data (1992-2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Evans, D.A., Funkestein, M.S., Albert, M.S., Scherr, P.A., Cook, N.R., Chown, M.J., Hebert, L.E., Hennekens, C.H., Taylor, J.O.: Prevalence of Alzheimer’ s disease in a community population of older persons. Higher than previously reported. Jama 262(I8) (1989)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kopytova, F.V., Mednikova, Y.S., Popova, E.N.: Age-related structural and functional characteristics of rabbit hippocampal neurons during the formation of temporal associations. Neurosci. Behav. Physiol. 34, 889–896 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ball, K., Berch, D., Helmers, K., Jobe, J., Leveck, M., Marsiske, M., Morris, J., Rebok, G., Smith, D., Tennstedt, S., Unverzagt, F., Willis, S.: Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults. JAMA 18, 2271–2281 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cappa, S.F., Benke, T., Clarke, S., Rossi, B., Stemmer, B., Heugten, C.M.: Members of the Task Force on Cognitive Rehabilitation. EFNS guidelines on cognitive rehabilitation: report of an EFNS task force. Eur. J. Neurol. 12, 665–680 (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Davis, R.N., Massman, P.J., Doody, R.S.: Cognitive intervention in Alzheimer disease: a randomised placebo –controlled study. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord. 15(1), 1–9 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Selwood, A., Thorgrimsen, L., Orrell, M.: Quality of live in dementia. A one year follow-up study International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 20, 232–237 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reisberg, B., Ferris, S.H., De Leon, M.J., Crook, T.: The Global Deterioration Scale of Assessment of primary degenerative dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry 139, 1136–1139 (1982)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Braak, H., Braak, E.: Neuropathologycal staging of Alzheimer related changes. Acta neuropathologica 82, 239–259 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Braak, H., Braak, E.: Morphological criteria for the recognition of Alzheimer’s disease and the distribution pattern of cortical changes related to this disorder. Neurobiol. Aging 15, 355–356 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Braak, H., Braak, E.: Staging of Alzheimer-related cortical destruction. Int. Psychogeriatr 9, 257–261 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rosen, W.G., Mohs, R.C., Davis, K.L.: A new rating scale for Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Psychiatry 141, 1356–1364 (1984)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Peavy, G.M., Salmon, D.P., Rice, V.A., Butters, N.: Assessment of severely demented elderly. Journal of the international Neuropsychological Society 1, 185 (1995)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hachinski, C.V., Lliff, L.D., Zilkha, E.: Cerebral blood flow of dementia. Archives of Neurology 32, 632–637 (1975)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mahoney, F.I., Barthel, D.: Functional evaluation: the Barthel index. Maryland State Medical Journal 14, 61–65 (1965)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lawton, M.P., Brody, E.M.: Assesment of older people: Self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. The Gerontologist 9, 179–186 (1969)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cummings, J.L.: The Neuropsychiatric inventory: Comprehensive assessment of psycopathology in dementia. Neurology 44, 2308–2314 (1994)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wechsler, D.: Wechsler memory scale revised manual. Psychological corporation, San Antonio (1987)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rey, A.: Léxamen clinique en psychologie. Presses universitaires de France, Paris (1964)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goodglass, H., Kaplan, E.: Test de vocabulario de Boston. Editorial médica panamericana, Madrid (1996)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wechsler, D.: Adaptación española de la Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. TEA Ediciones, SA, Madrid (1999)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goodglass, H., Kaplan, E.: Evaluación de la afasia y de trastornos relacionados. Editorial Médica Panamericana, Madrid (1983)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Manga, D., Ramos, F.: Secuencias motoras de Luria. Luria DNA. Diagnóstico neuro-psicológico de adultos. TEA ediciones, Madrid (2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Agree, E., Freedman, V.: Incorporating assistive devices into community-based long-term care: An analysis of the potential for substitution and supplementation. Journal of Aging and Health 12, 426–450 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Benton, A.L., Hamsher, K.: Controlled oral word association. Multilingual aphasia examination. AJA Associates, Iowa, USA (1989)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Taylor, D., Hoenig, H.: The effect of equipment usage and residual task difficulty on use of personal assistance, days in bed, and nursing home placement. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 52, 72–79 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Verbrugge, L., Sevak, P.: Use, type and efficacy of assistance for disability. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 57B, S366–S379 (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. J. Yanguas
    • 1
  • C. Buiza
    • 1
  • I. Etxeberria
    • 1
  • N. Galdona
    • 1
  • M. F. González
    • 1
  • E. Urdaneta
    • 1
  1. 1. San SebastianSpain

Personalised recommendations