A MPEG-2 Video Watermarking Algorithm with Compensation in Bit Stream

  • Hongmei Liu
  • Fenglian Shao
  • Jiwu Huang
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3919)


Some requirements for MPEG-2 video watermarking, such as invisibility, robustness, unchanged bitstream size and real time processing, are desirable. We firstly apply a DC-based embedding strategy to MPEG-2 compressed domain and embed the watermark by modifying the DC coefficients. The strategy has three advantages over the AC-based one. Then a MPEG-2 bitstream video watermarking scheme is proposed. The watermark is embedded in DC coefficients in I frames. Because these DC coefficients are differentially coded, error caused by watermark embedding will be propagated. In order to decrease the distortion to video quality caused by error propagation, we develop a compensation algorithm worked in bit-stream, which improves the quality of the watermarked video effectively. We also give a simple control scheme to ensure that the MPEG-2 bitstream keeps its original size after watermarking. The experimental results show that the watermark is robust while guaranteeing the invisibility and real-time processing.


Video Quality Watermark Embedding Watermark Algorithm Table Tennis Video Watermark 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongmei Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fenglian Shao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jiwu Huang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept.of Electronics and CommunicationSun Yat-sen universityGuangzhouP.R. China
  2. 2.Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Information SecurityGuangzhouP.R. China

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