Morphological Parsing of Tone: An Experiment with Two-Level Morphology on the Ha Language

  • Lotta Harjula
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4002)


Morphological parsers are typically developed for languages without contrastive tonal systems. Ha, a Bantu language of Western Tanzania, proposes a challenge to these parses with both lexical and grammatical pitch-accent [1] that would, in order to describe the tonal phenomena, seem to require an approach with a separate level for the tones. However, since the Two-Level Morphology [3] has proven successful with another Bantu language, Swahili [2], it is worth testing its possibilities with the tonally more challenging Bantu languages.


Segmental Level Index Form High Tone Grammatical Form Separate Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Harjula, L.: The Ha Language of Tanzania: Grammar, Texts, and Vocabulary. Ruediger Koeppe Verlag, Cologne (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hurskainen, A.: Swahili Language Manager: A storehouse for developing multiple computational applications. Nordic Journal of African Studies 13(3), 363–397 (2004), Also in:
  3. 3.
    Koskenniemi, K.: Two-level morphology: A general computational model for word form recognition and production. Publications of the Department of General Linguistics, vol. 11. University of Helsinki (1983)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lotta Harjula
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Asian and African StudiesUniversity of HelsinkiFinland

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