The Potential for Chatbots in Negotiated Learner Modelling: A Wizard-of-Oz Study
This paper explores the feasibility of using conversational agents, or chatbots, in negotiated learner modelling. This approach aims to combine the motivational, intuitive and domain-independent benefits of natural language dialogue using a chatbot, with the opportunities for learner reflection and increased model accuracy that can be achieved through negotiation of the learner model contents. A Wizard-of-Oz paradigm allowed investigation into the interactions between learners and their learner model in order to highlight key issues for the design of a chatbot for this purpose. Users appreciated interacting with a chatbot, and found it useable and an aid to negotiation. The study suggested many avenues for future investigation of the role of conversational agents in facilitating user-system dialogue about learner understanding.
KeywordsLearner Model Intelligent Tutoring System Conversational Agent Learner Reflection British Psychological Society
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Bull, S., Pain, H., Brna, P.: Mr. Collins: A collaboratively constructed, inspectable student model for intelligent computer assisted language learning. In: Instructional Science, vol. 23, pp. 65–87. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands (1995)Google Scholar
- 2.Dimitrova, V.: STyLE-OLM: Interactive Open Learner Modelling. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 13, 35–78 (2003)Google Scholar
- 3.Morales, R.: Exploring participative learner modelling and its effects on learner behaviour, unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh (2000)Google Scholar
- 4.Zapata-Rivera, J.-D., Greer, J.: Externalising Learner Modelling Representations. In: Proc. of Workshop on External Representations in AIED: Multiple Forms and Multiple Roles. Intl. Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp. 71–76 (2001)Google Scholar
- 5.Bull, S., Pain, H.: Did I say what I think I said, and do you agree with me?: Inspecting and Questioning the Student Model. In: Proceedings of World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Charlottesville, VA, pp. 501–508 (1995)Google Scholar
- 6.Baker, M.J.: Negotiated Tutoring, and Approach to Interaction in Intelligent Tutoring Systems, unpublished PhD thesis, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK (1990)Google Scholar
- 7.Lingubot technologies UK distributor (accessed December 14, 2005), http://www.creativevirtual.com/
- 8.Dahlbäck, N., Jönsson, A., Ahrenberg, L.: Wizard of Oz Studies – Why and How. In: Proceedings of Intelligent User Interfaces, pp. 193–200 (1993)Google Scholar
- 9.Bernsen, N.O., Dybkjaer, H., Dybkjaer, L.: Designing Interactive Speech Systems – From First Ideas to User Testing. Springer, Heidelberg (1998), cited in: Fiedler, A., Gabsdil, M.: Supporting Progressive Refinement of Wizard-of-Oz Experiments. In: Proceedings of the ITS 2002 - Workshop on Empirical Methods for Tutorial Dialogue Systems, San Sebastian, Spain, pp. 62-69 (2002)Google Scholar
- 10.British Psychological Society Ethical Principles for Conducting Research with Human Participants (accessed October 18, 2005), Available: http://www.bps.org.uk/the-society/ethics-rules-charter-code-of-conduct/code-of-conduct/ethical-principles-for-conducting-research-with-human-participants.cfm
- 12.Hall, P.: Director, Elzware. Personal communication (December 20, 2005), http://www.elzware.com