A Spatial Programming Model for Real Global Smart Space Applications

  • René Meier
  • Anthony Harrington
  • Thomas Termin
  • Vinny Cahill
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4025)


Global smart spaces are intended to provide their inhabitants with context-aware access to pervasive services and information relevant to large geographical areas. Transportation is one obvious domain for such global smart spaces since applications can be built to exploit the variety of sensor-rich systems that have been deployed to support urban traffic control and highway management as well as within individual vehicles. This paper presents a spatial programming model designed to provide a standardised way to build context-aware global smart space applications using information that is distributed across independent (legacy, sensor-enabled, and embedded) systems by exploiting the overlapping spatial and temporal attributes of the information maintained by these systems. The spatial programming model is based on a topographical approach to modelling space that enables systems to independently define and use potentially overlapping spatial context in a consistent manner and in contrast to topological approaches, in which geographical relationships between objects are described explicitly. Moreover, this approach facilitates the incremental construction of global smart spaces since the underlying systems to be incorporated are largely decoupled. The programming model has been evaluated by building a context-aware service for multi-modal urban journey planning, as part of the development of an overall architecture for intelligent transportation systems in Dublin.


Spatial Context Spatial Object Intelligent Transportation System Real World Object Common Data Model 


  1. 1.
    Dearle, A., Kirby, G., Morrison, R., McCarthy, A., Mullen, K., Yang, Y., Connor, R., Welen, P., Wilson, A.: Architectural Support for Global Smart Spaces. In: Chen, M.-S., Chrysanthis, P.K., Sloman, M., Zaslavsky, A. (eds.) MDM 2003. LNCS, vol. 2574, pp. 153–164. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cheverst, K., Davies, N., Mitchell, K., Friday, A., Efstratiou, C.: Experiences of Developing and Deploying a Context-aware Tourist Guide: The GUIDE Project. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 2000), pp. 20–31. ACM Press, Boston (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abowd, G.D., Atkeson, C.G., Hong, J., Long, S., Kooper, R., Pinkerton, M.: Cyberguide: A Mobile Context-Aware Tour Guide. ACM Wireless Networks 3, 421–433 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sivaharan, T., Blair, G., Friday, A., Wu, M., Duran-Limon, H., Okanda, P., Sørensen, C.-F.: Cooperating Sentient Vehicles for Next Generation Automobiles. In: The First ACM International Workshop on Applications of Mobile Embedded Systems (WAMES 2004), Boston, Massachusetts, USA (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kjeldskov, J., Howard, S., Murphy, J., Carroll, J., Vetere, F., Graham, C.: Designing TramMateña Context-Aware Mobile System Supporting Use of Public Transportation. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Conference on Designing for User Experiences, pp. 1–4. ACM Press, San Francisco (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dowling, J., Cunningham, R., Harrington, A., Curran, E., Cahill, V.: Emergent Consensus in Decentralised Systems using Collaborative Reinforcement Learning. In: Babaoğlu, Ö., Jelasity, M., Montresor, A., Fetzer, C., Leonardi, S., van Moorsel, A., van Steen, M. (eds.) SELF-STAR 2004. LNCS, vol. 3460, pp. 63–80. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Honle, N., Kappeler, U., Nicklaus, D., Schwarz, T., Grossmann, M.: Benefits of Integrating Meta Data into a Context Model. In: Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops, Pisa, Italy, pp. 25–29 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lehmann, O., Bauer, M., Becker, C., Nicklas, D.: From Home to World - Supporting Context-aware Applications through World Models. In: Proceedings of Second IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (Percom 2004), Orlando, Florida, pp. 297–308. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Roman, M., Hess, C., Cerqueira, R., Ranganathan, A., Campbell, R., Nahrstedt, K.: Gaia: A Middleware Infrastructure to Enable Active Spaces. IEEE Pervasive Computing 1, 74–83 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Borcea, C., Intanagonwiwat, C., Kang, P., Kramer, U., Iftode, L.: Spatial Programming using Smart Messages: Design and Implementation. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS 2004), Tokyo, Japan, pp. 690–699 (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dey, A., Abowd, G.: Towards a Better Understanding of Context and Context-Awareness. In: Workshop on The What, Who, Where, When, and How of Context-Awareness, as part of the 2000 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2000), The Hague, The Netherlands (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meier, R., Harrington, A., Cahill, V.: Audit of ITS Applications and Services in Dublin City, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, Dublin City Council iTransIT Deliverable (August 2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bauer, M., Becker, C., Rothermel, K.: Location Models from the Perspective of Context-Aware Applications and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 6, 322–328 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Open GIS Consortium Inc, OpenGIS Simple Features Specification for SQL, Revision 1.1, OpenGIS Project Document 99-049 (1999)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bossom, R.A.P.: European ITS Framework Architecture - Communication Architecture. Annex 1: Supporting Information for Communications Analysis, European Communities D3.3 (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fugger, T.F., Randles, B.C., Stein, A.C., Whiting, W.C., Gallagher, B.: Analysis of Pedestrian Gait and Perception–Reaction at Signal-Controlled Crosswalk Intersections. National Research Council, Washington, D.C, USA, Transportation Research Record 1705 TRB 00-1439 (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • René Meier
    • 1
  • Anthony Harrington
    • 1
  • Thomas Termin
    • 1
  • Vinny Cahill
    • 1
  1. 1.Distributed Systems Group, Department of Computer ScienceTrinity CollegeDublinIreland

Personalised recommendations