User-System-Experience Model for User Centered Design in Computer Games

  • Ben Cowley
  • Darryl Charles
  • Michaela Black
  • Ray Hickey
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4018)


This paper details the central ideas to date, from a PhD entitled ‘Player Profiling for Adaptive Artificial Intelligence in Computer and Video Games’. Computer and videogames differ from other web and productivity software in that games are much more highly interactive and immersive experiences. Whereas usability and user modelling for other software may be based on productivity alone, games require an additional factor that takes account of the quality of the user experience in playing a game. In order to describe that experience we describe a model of User, System and Experience (USE) in which the primary construct for evaluation of a player’s experience will be the Experience Fluctuation Model (EFM), taken from Flow theory. We illustrate with a straightforward example how this system may be automated in real-time within a commercial game.


Computer Game Productivity Software User Center Design Categorical Grammar Gaming Experience 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gilleade, K.M., Dix, A.: Using frustration in the design of adaptive videogames. In: ACE 2004, vol. 74, pp. 228–232. ACM Press, New York (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bateman, C.M., Boon, R.: 21st Century Game Design, Charles River Media (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Caillois, R., Barash, M.: Man, Play and Games. Thames & Hudson, London (1962) (translation)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bateman C.M.: Only A Game weblog, posted 20/01/06 (last accessed February 2, 2006),
  5. 5.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M.: Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Harper & Row Publishers Inc., New York (1990)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Finneran, C., Zhang, P.: A Person-Artefact-Task (PAT) Model of Flow Antecedents in Computer-Mediated Environments. Journal of Human Computer Studies (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Charles, D., McNeill, M., McAlister, M., Black, M., Moore, A., Stringer, K., Kucklich, J., Kerr, A.: Player-Centred Game Design: Player Modelling and Adaptive Digital Games. In: DIGRA 2005. Simon Fraser University, Canada (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huizinga, J.: Homo Ludens: a Study of the Play Element in Culture. Temple Smith, London (1970)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Steuer, J.: Defining virtual reality: dimensions determining telepresence. In: Biocca, F., Levy, M.R. (eds.) Communication in the Age of Virtual Reality, pp. 33–56 (1995)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sweetser, P., Wyeth, P.: GameFlow: A Model for Evaluating Player Enjoyment in Games. ACM Computers in Entertainment 3(3) (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rauterburg, M.: About a framework for information and information processing of learning systems. In: Proceedings: Conference on Information System Concept (1995)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yannakakis, G., Hallam, J.: A Scheme for Creating Digital Entertainment with Substance, Workshop on Reasoning, Representation and Learning in Computer Games, IJCAI, Edinburgh (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ben Cowley
    • 1
  • Darryl Charles
    • 1
  • Michaela Black
    • 1
  • Ray Hickey
    • 1
  1. 1.University of UlsterColeraineNorthern Ireland

Personalised recommendations