Supporting Customised Collaboration over Shared Document Repositories

  • Claudia-Lavinia Ignat
  • Moira C. Norrie
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4001)


The development of collaborative environments that not only manage information and communication, but also support the actual work processes of organisations is very important. XML documents are increasingly being used to mark up various kinds of data from web content to data used by applications. Often these documents need to be collaboratively created and edited by a group of users. In this paper we present a flexible solution for supporting collaboration over shared repositories containing both XML and text documents. By adopting hierarchical document models instead of linear representations used in most editing systems, the level of conflict granularity and resolution can be varied dynamically and the semantics of the user operations can be easily expressed. Merging of user work is based on the operations performed rather than the document states which provides a less complex and more appropriate way of handling conflicts.


Text Document Processing Node Semantic Unit Document Level Merging Algorithm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Berliner, B.: CVS II: Parallelizing software development. In: Proc. of USENIX, Washington, DC (1990)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cobena, G., Abiteboul, S., Marian, A.: Detecting changes in XML documents. In: Proc. of the Intl. Conf. on Data Engineering (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Collins-Sussman, B., Fitzpatrick, B.W., Pilato, C.M.: Version Control with Subversion. O’Reilly, Sebastopol (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ellis, C.A., Gibbs, S.J.: Concurrency control in groupware systems. In: Proc. of the ACM SIGMOD Conf. on Management of Data, pp. 399–407 (1989)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ignat, C.-L., Norrie, M.C.: Flexible Merging of Hierarchical Documents. In: Intl. Workshop on Collaborative Editing. GROUP 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ignat, C.-L., Norrie, M.C.: Operation-based Merging of Hierarchical Documents. In: Pastor, Ó., Falcão e Cunha, J. (eds.) CAiSE 2005. LNCS, vol. 3520, pp. 101–106. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ignat, C.-L., Norrie, M.C.: CoDoc: Multi-mode Collaboration over Documents. In: Persson, A., Stirna, J. (eds.) CAiSE 2004. LNCS, vol. 3084, pp. 580–594. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ignat, C.-L., Norrie, M.C.: Customisable Collaborative Editor Relying on treeOPT Algorithm. In: Proc. of ECSCW 2003, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 315–334 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    La Fontaine, R.: A Delta Format for XML: Identifying Changes in XML Files and Representing the Changes in XML. XML Europe (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lippe, E., van Oosterom, N.: Operation-based merging. In: Proc. of the 5th ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Software development environments, pp. 78–87 (1992)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Molli, P., Oster, G., Skaf-Molli, H., Imine, A.: Using the transformational approach to build a safe and generic data synchronizer. In: Proc. of Group 2003 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Molli, P., Skaf-Molli, H., Oster, G., Jourdain, S.: Sams: Synchronous, asynchronous, multi-synchronous environments. In: Proc. of CSCWD, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Munson, J.P., Dewan, P.: A flexible object merging framework. In: Proc. of ACM Conf. on CSCW, pp. 231–242 (1994)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Myers, E.: An O(ND) difference algorithm and its variations. Algoritmica 1(2), 251–266 (1986)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shen, H., Sun, C.: Flexible merging for asynchronous collaborative systems. In: Proc. of CoopIS/DOA/ODBASE, pp. 304–321 (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vidot, N., Cart, M., Ferrié, J., Suleiman, M.: Copies convergence in a distributed real-time collaborative environment. In: Proc. of CSCW, pp. 171–180 (2000)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang, Y., DeWitt, D.J., Cai, J.Y.: X-Diff: An Effective Change Detection Algorithm for XML Documents. In: Proc. of ICDE (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudia-Lavinia Ignat
    • 1
  • Moira C. Norrie
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Information Systems, ETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations