TCP Versus TFRC over Wired and Wireless Internet Scenarios: An Experimental Evaluation

  • Luca De Cicco
  • Saverio Mascolo
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4003)


TCP NewReno is the standard transport protocol originally designed to transport bulk data over the Internet. During the years it has been very successful to provide Internet stability due to its congestion control scheme. However TCP is not very suitable for multimedia streaming applications, that are time sensitive, because of its retransmission and multiplicative decrease mechanisms. The alternative to TCP is the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) which works as a simple packet multiplexer/demultiplexer and does not implement any congestion control scheme or retransmission mechanism. However, it has been pointed out that applications that don’t use congestion control schemes are dangerous for the stability of the Internet [1]. The TCP Friendly Rate Control (TFRC) is currently been discussed within the IETF as a possible leading standard for streaming multimedia flows. This paper aims at investigating the performances of TCP and TFRC congestion control schemes in wired public Internet and in mixed wired/wireless Internet using a commercial UMTS card. The experiments carried out have shown that TFRC exhibits smoother rate dynamics in all wired scenarios, whereas in the case of UMTS scenario its burstiness is comparable to that of TCP.


Congestion Control Congestion Window User Datagram Protocol Fairness Index Link Utilization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Floyd, S., Fall, K.: Promoting the use of end-to-end congestion control in the Internet. IEEE/ACM Transaction on Networking 7(4), 458–472 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Handley, M., Floyd, S., Padhye, J., Widmer, J.: TCP Friendly Rate Control (TFRC): Protocol Specification. RFC 3448 (January 2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allman, M., Paxson, V., Stevens, W.: TCP Congestion Control. RFC 2581 (April 1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Padhye, J., Firoiu, V., Towsley, D., Kurose, J.: Modeling TCP throughput: A simple model and its empirical validation. In: ACM Sigcomm 1998, Vancouver BC, Canada, pp. 303–314 (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Floyd, S., Handley, M., Padhye, J., Widmer, J.: Equation-based congestion control for unicast application. In: ACM SIGCOMM 2000 (August 2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jacobson, V.: Congestion Avoidance and Control. ACM Computer Communications Review 18(4), 314–329 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rejaie, R., Handley, M., Estrin, D.: RAP: An End-to-end Rate-based congestion control mechanism for Real-time streams in the Internet. In: Proc. of INFOCOM (March 1999)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mathis, M., Heffner, J., Reddy, R.: Web100: Extended TCP Instrumentation for Research, Education and Diagnosis. ACM Computer Communications Review 33(3) (July 2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dunigan, T., Fowler, F.: A TCP-Over-UDP test Harness, Technical reportGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    LIBrary for NETwork MEASurements,
  12. 12.
    TFRC experimental Code,
  13. 13.
    Jain, R.: The art of Computer Systems Performance Analysis Techniques for Experimental Design, Measurement, Simulation and Modeling. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester (1991)MATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yang, Y., Kim, M., Lam, S.: Transient behaviors of TCP- friendly congestion control protocols. In: Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2001 (April 2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luca De Cicco
    • 1
  • Saverio Mascolo
    • 1
  1. 1.DEE Politecnico di BariBariItaly

Personalised recommendations