Reliable Data Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks: An Energy-Efficient, Cluster-Based Approach

  • Shan-Shan Li
  • Pei-Dong Zhu
  • Xiang-Ke Liao
  • Qiang Fu
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4003)


Reliable data delivery in wireless sensor networks is a challenging issue due to the error prone nature of wireless communication and the frangibility of little sensors. However, readings of geographically proximate sensors are strongly correlated, so it’s not only unnecessary but also wastes energy to deliver data in all sensors reliably. Sensor nodes could be clustered and only the aggregated data need to be reliably delivered. In this paper, we propose a new reliable, energy-efficient clustering protocol CREED. CREED takes advantage of the multi-rate capabilities of 802.11 a, b, g technologies by reducing energy consumption per bit for shorter transmission range.A dynamic backup scheme EDDS based on nodes’ residual energy is presented to enhance the fault tolerance of CREED. EDDS supports quick cluster head selection and failure recovery while only need exchange a few messages. CREED also includes an energy aware multipath inter-cluster routing to guarantee reliable data delivery. Simulation results verify the performance of CREED.


Sensor Network Sensor Node Wireless Sensor Network Cluster Head Data Packet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Akyildiz, F., et al.: Wireless Sensor Networks: a survey. Computer Networks 38, 393–422 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Karl, H., Willig, A.: A short survey of wireless sensor networks. Technical Report TKN-03-018, Telecommunication Networks Group, technical University Berlin (October 2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lewis, F.L.: Wireless Sensor Networks. Smart Environments:Technologies, Protocol and Applications (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ganesan, D., Govindan, R., Shenker, S., Estrin, D.: Highly-resilient,energy-efficient multipath routing in wireless sensor networks. In: Mobile Computing and Communications Review(MC2R), vol. 1(2) (2002)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bhatnagar, S., Deb, B., Nath, B.: Service differentiation in sensor networks. In: Wireless Personal Multimedia Communication (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Deb, B., Bhatnagar, S., Nath, B.: ReInForm: Reliable Information Forwarding using Multiple Paths in Sensor Networks. In: Proc. of IEEE LCN (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marina, M., Das, S.: On-Demand Multipath DistanceVector Routing in Ad Hoc Networks. In: Proc. of IEEE ICNP (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pearlman, M., Haas, Z., Sholander, P., Tabrizi, S.: The Impact of Alternate Path Routing for Load Balancing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks. In: Proc. of the ACM MobiHoc (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Deb, B., Bhatnagar, S., Nath, B.: Information Assurance in Sensor Networks. In: WSNA (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stann, F., Heidemann, J.: RMST:Reliable Data Transport in Sensor Networks. In: 1st IEEE International Workshop on Sensor Net Protocols and Applications (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Intanagonwiwat, C., Govindan, R., Estrin, D.: Directed diffusion:a scalable and robust communication paradigm for sensor networks. In: MOBICOM, pp. 56–57 (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Heinzelman, W.B., Chandrakasan, A.P., Balakrishnan, H.: An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 1(4) (October 2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Younis, O., Fahmy, S.: Distributed Clustering in Ad-hoc Sensor Networks: A Hybrid, Energy-Efficient Approach. In: Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Hong Kong (March 2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bandyopadhyay, S., Coyle, E.: An Energy Efficient Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Proceeding of INFOCOM 2003, vol. 3, pp. 1713–1723 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Veyseh, M., Wei, B., Mir, N.F.: An Information Management Protocol to Control Routing and Clustering in Sensor Networks. Journal of Computing and Information Technology - CIT 13, 53–68 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hempel, M., Sharif, H., Raviraj, P.: HEAR-SN: A New Hierarchical Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Sensor Networks. In: Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Younis, O., Fahmy, S., Santi, P.: An Architecture for Robust Sensor Network Communications. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 1, 1–23 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xu, Y., heidemann, J., Estrin, D.: Geography-informed Energy Conservatino for Ad-hoc Routing. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 70–84 (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhong, L.C., Rabaey, J.M., Wolisz, A.: An integrated data-link energy model for wireless sensor networks. In: ICC 2004, Paris, France, June 20-24 (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mhatre, V., Rosenberg, C.: Design guidelines for wireless sensor networks: communication, clustering and aggregation. Ad Hoc Network 2, 45–63 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Min, R., et al.: Top Five Myths about the Energy Consumption of Wireless Communication. Mobile Comput. and Commun. Review 1(2) (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haenggi, M., Puccinelli, D.: Routing in Ad Hoc Networks: A Case for Long Hops. IEEE Communication Magazine (October 2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Broadcom white paper, The New Mainstream Wireless LAN Standard, softcopy at:,39025945,60072368p-39000522q,00.htm
  24. 24.
    Mehta. S., et al.: A CMOS Dual-Band Tri-Mode Chipset for IEEE 802.11a/b/g Wireless LAN. In: 2003 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, pp. 427–430 (June 2003)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shah, R.C., et al.: Energy Aware Routing for Low Energy Ad Hoc Sensor Networks. In: IEEE Wireless Commun. Networking Conf. vol. 1, pp. 350–355 (March 2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shan-Shan Li
    • 1
  • Pei-Dong Zhu
    • 1
  • Xiang-Ke Liao
    • 1
  • Qiang Fu
    • 1
  1. 1.Doctor Team, School of ComputerNational University of Defense TechnologyChangShaChina

Personalised recommendations