Adaptive Clustering with Virtual Subnets Support in Ad Hoc Networks

  • Tzu-Chiang Chiang
  • Ming-Hui Tsai
  • Yueh-Min Huang
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3992)


This paper concerns how the virtual subnet mechanism is engaged with the hierarchical architecture in ad hoc networks. The employment of virtual subnets performed at the Data Link Layer can prevent the reveal of broadcast storm and further improve the efficiency of traffic between members of specific group in ad hoc networks. A convenient method is proposed to select crucial backbone nodes which will furnish the ability of filtering frames in virtual subnet against the unnecessary flooding, termed CVA (Clustering with Virtual subnets support Algorithm). The chosen nodes include two different types, station nodes and port nodes, which act functionally as the switch and the ports of the switch to filter frames, respectively. We evaluate CVA with the metrics of average nodes in the backbone and duration of the protocols. The simulation result manifests the proper performance while supporting the virtual subnets in ad hoc networks.


Station Node Medium Access Control Address Backbone Node Data Link Layer Virtual Backbone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Basagni, S., Mastrogiovanni, M., Petrioli, C.: A Performance Comparison of Protocols for Clustering and Backbone Formation in Large Scale Ad Hoc Networks. In: 1st IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, October 24-27 (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yu, J.Y., Chong, P.H.J.: A Survey of Clustering Schemes for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials First Quarter 7(1), 32–48 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liang, B., Haas, Z.: Virtual backbone generation and maintenance in ad hoc network mobility management. In: Proceedings of the 19th IEEE Infocom, Tel Aviv, Israel, March 26–30, pp. 1293–1302 (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stojmenovic, I., Seddigh, M., Zunic, J.: Dominating sets and neighbor elimination based broadcasting algorithms in wireless networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 13(1), 14–25 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Huang, Y.M., Chiang, T.-C.: An Efficient Encoding Tree for Location-Aware Multicast Routing Protocol in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks. Journal of Internet Technology 6(1) (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Das, B., Bhargavan, V.: Routing in ad-hoc networks using minimum connected dominating sets. In: IEEE International Conference on Communications ICC 1997 (1997)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dss, B., Sivakumar, E., Bhargavan, V.: Routing in ad-hoc networks using a virtual backbone. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks(IC3N 1997), September 1997, pp. 1–20 (1997)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chiang, C.C., Wu, H.K., Liu, W., Gerla, M.: Routing in Clustered Multihop, Mobile Wireless Networks with Fading Channel. In: Proc. IEEE Singapore international Conference on Networks (SICON 1997), pp. 197–211 (1997)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tsai, M.-H., Chiang, T.-C., Huang, Y.M.: On Scalability and Mobility Management of Hierarchical Large-Scale Ad Hoc Networks. In: Enokido, T., Yan, L., Xiao, B., Kim, D.Y., Dai, Y.-S., Yang, L.T. (eds.) EUC-WS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3823, pp. 714–723. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin, C.R., Gerla, M.: Adaptive Clustering for Mobile Wireless Networks. IEEE Jour. Selected Areas in Communications, 1265–1275 (September 1997)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wan, P.-J., Alzoubi, K.M., Frieder, O.: Distributed construction of connected dominating sets in wireless ad hoc networks. In: Proceedings of INFOCOM 2002 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu, J., Li, H.: On calculating connected dominating sets for efficient routing in ad hoc wireless networks. Telecommunication Systems, Special Issue on Mobile Computing and Wireless Networks 18(1/3), 13–36 (2001)MATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Garcia Nocetti, F., Solano Gonzales, J., Stojmenovic, I.: Connectivity based k -hop clustering in wireless networks. TelecommunicationSystems 22(1–4), 205–220, 2003Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dubhashi, D., Mei, A., Panconesi, A., Radhakrishnan, J., Srinivasan, A.: Fast distributed algorithms for (weakly) connected dominating sets and linear-size skeletons. In: Proceedings of the 14th Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA), Baltimore, MD, January 12–14, pp. 717–724 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guha, S., Khuller, S.: Approximation algorithms for connected dominating sets. Algorithmica 20(4), 374–387 (1998)MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chlamtac, I., Faragó, A.: A new approach to the design and analysis of peer-to-peer mobile networks. Wireless Networks 5(3), 149–156 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    IEEE draft standard for virtual bridged local area networks, 802.1Q/D11, July 30 (1998)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    The VINT Project, The ns Manual (2002),

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tzu-Chiang Chiang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ming-Hui Tsai
    • 3
  • Yueh-Min Huang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Engineering ScienceNational Cheng-Kung UniversityTaiwanROC
  2. 2.Department of Information ManagementHisng-Kuo University of ManagementTaiwan
  3. 3.National Tainan First Senior High SchoolTaiwan, R.O.C.

Personalised recommendations