The Persuasive Power of Mediated Risk Experiences

  • Anneloes Meijnders
  • Cees Midden
  • Teddy McCalley
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3962)


This paper discusses the use of multimedia techniques and augmented reality tools to bring across the risks of global climate change. We look back on a series of experiments showing that vividness is a key factor in creating emotional risk responses and fostering attitude change through systematic information processing. However, the effects were modest even when vivid and concrete images and texts were used in combination with ominous sounds and music. The next step therefore is to explore and make use of the possibilities of multimedia techniques and augmented reality to provide people with a simulated risk experience. This paper concludes with a preview of this work, the focus of which is on the sense of presence.


Risk Perception Augmented Reality Flooding Experience Persuasive Technology Risk Experience 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Fischhoff, B., Furby, L.: Introduction to: Psychological Dimensions of Climate Change. In: Chen, R.S., Boulding, E., Schneider, S.H. (eds.) Social Science Research and Climate Change: An Interdisciplinary Appraisal, pp. 177–203. D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht (1983)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bostrom, A., Morgan, M.G., Fischhoff, B., Read, D.: What do people know about global climate change? 1 Mental models. Risk Analysis 14, 959–970 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kempton, W.: Lay perceptives on global climate change. Global Environmental Change, 183–208 (June 1991)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Read, D., Bostrom, A., Morgan, M.G., Fischhoff, B., Smuts, T.: What do people know about global climate change? 2. Survey studies of educated laypeople. Risk Analysis 14, 971–982 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weber, E.U.: Perception and expectation of climate change. Precondition for economic and technological adaptation. In: Bazerman, M.H., Messick, D.M., Tenbrunsel, A.E., Wade-Benzoni, K.A. (eds.) Environment, ethics, and behavior. The psychology of environmental valuation and degradation, pp. 314–341. The New Lexington Press, San Francisco (1997)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    KNMI: De toestand van het klimaat in Nederland 2003 [Climate Conditions in the Netherlands, 2003]. KNMI, De Bilt, The Netherlands (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O’Connor, R.E., Yarnal, B., Dow, K., Jocoy, C.L., Carbone, G.J.: Feeling at risk matters: Water managers and the decision to use forecasts. Risk Analysis 25, 1265–1275 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Siegel, J.M., Shoaf, K.I., Afifi, A.A., Bourque, L.B.: Surviving two disasters. Does reaction to the first predict response to the second? In Environment and Behavior 35, 637–654 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nisbett, R.E., Ross, L.: Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1980)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Taylor, S.E., Thompson, S.C.: Stalking the elusive ’vividness’ effect. Psychological Review 89, 155–181 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rippetoe, P.A., Rogers, R.W.: Effects of components of protection-motivation theory on adaptive and maladaptive coping with a health threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52, 596–604 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meijnders, A.L.: Climate change and changing attitudes. Effect of negative emotion on information processing. Dissertation, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands (1998)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meijnders, A.L., Midden, C.J.H., Wilke, H.A.M.: Communications About EnvironmentalRisks and Risk Reducing Behavior: The impact of Fear on Information Processing. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 31, 754–777 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meijnders, A.L., Midden, C.J.H., Wilke, H.A.M.: Role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks. Risk Analysis 21, 955–966 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    IJsselsteijn, W.A.: Presence in depth. Dissertation, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    IJsselsteijn, W.A., de Ridder, H., Freeman, J., Avons, S.E., Bouwhuis, D.: Effects of stereoscopic presentation, image motion and screen size on subjective and objective corroborative measures of presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 10, 298–311 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hoffman, H.G., Garcia-Palacios, A., Carlin, A., Furness, T.A.: III, Botella-Arbona, C.: Interfaces that heal: Coupling real and virtual objects to treat spider phobia. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 16, 283–300 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Regenbrecht, H.T., Schubert, T.W., Friedmann, F.: Measuring the sense of presence and its relations to fear of heights in virtual environments. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 10, 233–249 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wiederhold, B.K., Davis, R., Wiederhold, M.D.: The effects of immersiveness on physiology. In: Riva, G., Wiederhold, B.K., Molinari, E. (eds.) Virtual Environments in Clinical Psychology and Neuroscience, IOS Press, Amsterdam (1998)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    de Kort, Y.A.W., Meijnders, A.L., Sponselee, A.-M.: What’s wrong with virtual trees? Restoring from stress in a mediated environment (submitted for publication)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fogg, B.J.: Persuasive technology. Using computers to change what we think and do. Morgan Kaufmann, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Watson, R.T., Albritton, D.L., Dokken, D.J.: Climate change 2001: Synthesis report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change c/o World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anneloes Meijnders
    • 1
  • Cees Midden
    • 1
  • Teddy McCalley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human-Technology InteractionEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations