Advertisement

Designing Scalable WDM Optical Interconnects Using Predefined Wavelength Conversion

  • Haitham S. Hamza
  • Jitender S. Deogun
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3976)

Abstract

This paper investigates the problem of designing scalable and cost-effective wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical interconnects. We propose a new design for WDM optical interconnect that has several advantages over existing designs. First, wavelength conversion occurs between two predefined wavelengths. This not only eliminates the need for expensive wide-range wavelength converters, but also ensures high scalability as the conversion range is independent of the number of the wavelengths in the system. Second, the new design requires a smaller number of switching elements compared to most of the recent best interconnect designs.

Keywords

Switching Cost Output Port Wavelength Division Multiplex Wavelength Conversion Switching Network 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Dasylva, A.C., Montuno, D.Y., Kodaypak, P.: Nonblocking space-wavelength networks with wave-mixing frequency conversion. J. Opt. Netw. 1, 206–216 (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chowdhury, A., Hagness, S.C., McCaughan, L.: Simultaneous optical wavelength interchange with a two-dimensional second-order nonlinear photonic crystal. Opt. Lett. 25(11), 832–834 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rasala, A., Wilfong, G.: Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects. In: Proc. of the Eleventh Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA 2002), pp. 606–615 (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mukherjee, B.: WDM optical communication netowrks: progress and challenges. IEEE JSAC 18(10), 1810–1824 (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clos, C.: A study of non-blocking switching networks. Bell System Tech. J., 407–424 (1958)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Qiao, C., Yoo, M.: Optical burst switching (obs)- a new paradigm for an optical internet. J. of High Speed Networks 8(1), 69–84 (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Opferman, D.C., Tsao-Wu, N.T.: On a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm. Bell Syst. Tech. J. 5(50), 1579–1600 (1971)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pan, D., Anand, V., Ngo, H.Q.: Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching networks. In: IEEE ICC 2004, pp. 1801–1805 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hwang, F.K.: A survey of nonblocking multicast three-stage Clos networks. IEEE Com. Mag., 34–37 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hill, G.R., et al.: A transport network layer based on optical netowrk elements. J. Lightwave Tech. 11, 667–679 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wilfong, G., Mikkelsen, B., Doerr, C., Zirngibl, M.: WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity. J. of Lightwave Tech. 17(10), 1732–1741 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xiao, G., Leung, Y.W.: Algorithms for allocating wavelength converters in all-optical networks. IEEE/ACM Trans. on Networking 7, 545–557 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jonathan Chao, H., Deng, K.-L., Jing, Z.: PetaStar: A Petabit photonic packet switch. IEEE JSAC 21(7), 1096–1112 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jonathan Chao, H., Jing, Z., Liew, S.Y.: Matching algorithms for three-stage bufferless Clos network switches. IEEE Communication Mag., 46–54 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ngo, H.Q., Pan, D., Qiao, C.: Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelegnth conversion. In: Proc. 23rd IEEE INFOCOM 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ngo, H.Q., Pan, D., Yang, Y.: Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength converters. In: Proc. 24rd IEEE INFOCOM 2005 (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hamza, H.S., Deogun, J.S.: Wavelength exchanging Cross-Connect (WEX)- a new class of photonic cross-connect architectures. IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Tech. (to appear)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hamza, H.S., Deogun, J.S.: WDM Optical Interconnects — A Balanced Design Approach. Manuscript under reviewGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hinton, H.S.: A nonblocking optical interconnection network using directional couplers. In: GLOBECOM 1984, pp. 26.5.1–26.5.5 (1984)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cheyns, J., et al.: Clos lives on in optical packet switching. IEEE Com. Mag., 114–121 (2003)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ramamirtham, J., Turner, J.S.: Design of wavelength converting switches for optical burst switching. In: Proc. of the 21st Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM 2002), vol. 2, pp. 1162–1171 (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hui, J.Y.: Switching and traffic theory for integrated broadband network. In: Point-to-point multistage circuit switching, pp. 53–83 (1990)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lee, K.-C., Li, V.O.K.: A wavelength-convertible optical network. J. of Lightwave Tech. 11, 962–970 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moei, K., Takara, H., Saruwatari, M.: Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror. Electronics Lett. 33(6), 520–522 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Uesaka, K., Wong, K.K.-Y., Marhic, M.E., Kazovsky, L.G.: Wavelength Exchange in a Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber: Theory and Experiments. IEEE J. of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8(3), 560–568 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhu, K., Zang, H., Mukherjee, B.: A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches. IEEE JSAC 21(7), 1173–1186 (2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Antoniades, N., Yoo, S.J.B., Bala, K., Ellinas, G., Stern, T.E.: An architecture for a wavelength-Interchanging cross-connect utilizing parametric wavelength converters. J. of Lightwave Tech. 17(7) (July 1999)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Torrington-Smith, N.P., Mouftah, H.T., Rahman, M.H.: An evaluation of optical switch architectures utilizing wavelength converters. In: Electrical and Computer Eng., Canadian Conf., vol. 2, pp. 1008–1013 (2000)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Barry, R.A., Humblet, P.A.: Models of blocking probability in all-optical networks with an without wavelength changers. IEEE J. Selected Areas in Communications 14, 858–867 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kannan, R.: The KR-Benes network: a control-optimal rearrangeable permutation network. IEEE Tran. on Computers 54(5), 534–544 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Subramaniam, S., Azizoglu, M., Somani, A.K.: On optimal converter placement in wavelength-routed networks. IEEE/ACM Tran. on Networking 7, 754–766 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stern, T.E., Bala, K.: Multiwavelength optical networks: a layered approach. Addison Wesley, Reading (1999)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee, T.T., Liew, S.Y.: Parallel routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks. IEEE Tran. on Communications 50(11), 1841–1847 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Benes, V.E.: On rearrangeable three-stage connecting networks. Bell Syst. Tech. J. XLI(5) (September 1962)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dally, W.J., Towles, B.: Principles and practices of interconnection networks. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco (2004)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Qin, X., Yang, Y.: Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limted wavelegnth conversion. IEEE Transactions on Communications 50(12), 2032–2041 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yang, Y., Wang, J., Qiao, C.: Nonblocking WDM multicast switching networks. IEEE Tran. on Parallerl and distributed systems 11(12), 1274–1287 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yang, Y., Wang, J.: Desiging WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity by using limited wavelength conversion. IEEE Transactions on Computers 53(12), 1547–1556 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yang, Y., Wang, J.: Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Sys. 16(1), 51–66 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haitham S. Hamza
    • 1
  • Jitender S. Deogun
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science & EngineeringUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA

Personalised recommendations