A Specification Language and System for the Three-Dimensional Visualisation of Knowledge Bases

  • El Mustapha El Atifi
  • Gilles Falquet
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3941)


In this paper we present models and languages to specify 3D interfaces for accessing knowledge bases. In this approach, a specification has an abstract and a concrete level. The abstract specification language describes the contents of nodes, obtained by selecting knowledge base objects, and different categories of links on these nodes. It serves to generate an abstract interface which is a 3D spatial hypertext. The concrete specification language associates styles and layout managers to the abstract interface components, so as to produce a concrete interface in which the nodes have a presentation and a position. This concrete interface is then easily translated in a 3D scene representation language such as VRML or X3D to be displayed.


Knowledge Base Resource Description Framework Triple Pattern Semantic Link Concrete Interface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ballay, J.M.: Designing Workscape: An Interdisciplinary Experience. In: ACM Conference on Human Computer Interaction (CHI 1994), pp. 10–15 (1994)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bastide, R., Palanque, P.: A Petri Net Based Environment for the Design of Event-Driven Interfaces. In: 16th International Conference on Application and Theory of Petri Nets (ATPN 1995), Torino-Italy, June 1995, pp. 20–22 (1995)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jean, B., Stefano, C.R., Gilles, R., Pierluigi, S.P.: A scalable formal method for design and automatic checking of user interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on Software engineering, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 12–19, pp. 453–462 (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bodart, F., Hennebert, A.-M., Leheureux, J.-M., Vanderdonckt, J.: Computer-Aided Window Identification in TRIDENT. In: Nordbyn, K., Helmersen, P.H., Gilmore, D.J., Arnesen, S.A. (eds.) Proc. of 5th IFIP TC 13 Int. Conf. on Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT 1995, Lillehammer, June 27–29, pp. 331–336. Chapman & Hall, Londres, Boca Raton (1995)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bumbulis, P., Alencar, P.S.C., Cowan, D.D., Lucena, C.J.P.: Combining Formal Techniques and Prototyping in User Interface Construction and Verification. In: 2nd Eurographics Workshop on Design, Specification, Verification of Interactive Systems (DSV-IS 1995). LNCS. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Card, S., Robertson, G., York, W.: The WebBook and the Web Forager: An Information Workspace for the World-Wide Web. In: Proceedings of CHI 1996, ACM Conference on Human Factors in Software (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cockburn, A., McKenzie, B.: 3D or not 3D?: evaluating the effect of the third dimension in a document management system. In: Proc. of the ACM CHI conference on Computer-Human Interaction, pp. 434–441 (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Conklin, J.: Designing Organizational Memory: Preserving Assets in a Knowledge Economy. Group Decision Support Systems (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Falquet, G., Guyot, J., Nerima, L.: The World Wide Web and Databases. In: Atzeni, P., Mendelzon, A.O., Mecca, G. (eds.) WebDB 1998. LNCS, vol. 1590, pp. 136–151. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fernandez, M., Florescu, D., Kang, J., Levy, A., Suciu, D.: Catching the boat with Strudel: experience with a web-site management system. In: Proceedings of SIGMOD 1998 Conference (1998)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fairchild, K.M., Poltrock, S.E., Furnas, G.W.: SemNet: Three-Dimensional Graphic Representation of Large Knowledge Bases. In: Guidon, R. (ed.) Cognitive Science and its Application for Human-Computer Interaction. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1988)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Griffiths, T., et al.: Teallch: a model-based user interface development environment for object databases. In: User Interfaces to Data Intensive Systems, pp. 86–96 (1999)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grønbæk, K., Mogensen, P.: Hypermedia in the virtual project room - toward open 3D spatial hypermedia. In: Proceedings of the eleventh ACM on Hypertext and hypermedia, San Antonio,Texas, United States (2000)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hornbk, K., Frkjr, E.: Reading of electronic documents: the usability of linear, fisheye, and overview+detail interfaces. In: Proc. of the ACM CHI conference on Computer-Human Interaction, pp. 293–300 (2001)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jacob Robert, J.K.: A specification language for direct-manipulation user interfaces. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 5(4), 283–317 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van Den Bos, J.: Abstract interaction tools: a language for user interface management systems. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS) 10(2), 215–247 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Klyne, G., Caroll, J.: Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax. W3C Recommendation, February 5 (2005), Retrieved from on: http://www.w3c.org/TR/rdf-concepts/
  18. 18.
    Lamping, J., Rao, R., Pirolli, P.: The Hyperbolic Browser: A Focus+Context Technique for Visualizing Large Hierarchies. In: Proc. ACM CHI 1995 Conf., New York (1995)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    XML Markup Languages for User Interface Definition, in The OASIS Cover Pages, January 02 (2004), Retrieved from on: http://xml.coverpages.org/userInterfaceXML.html
  20. 20.
    O’Leary, D.E.: Enterprise Knowledge Management. IEEE Computer 31 (1998)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Palanque, P.: Towards an integrated proposal for Interactive Systems design based on TLIM and ICO. In: Bodart, F., Vanderdonckt, J. (eds.) Eurographics Workshop on Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems: Informal Proceedings, Belgium,, pp. 69–85 (1996)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Prud’hommeaux, E., Seaborne, A.: SPARQL Query Language for RDF. W3C Working Draft, February 22 (2005), Retrieved from on: http://www.w3c.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/
  23. 23.
    Puerta, A.R.: The MECANO Project: Comprehensive and Integrated Support for Model- Based Interface Development. In: Proc. of the 2nd Int. W. on Computer-Aided Design of User Interfaces CADUI 1996, June 5–7 (1996)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Puerta, A.R., Maulsby, D.: Management of Interface Design Knowledge with MOBID. In: Proc. of International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI 1997), Orlando, January 1997, pp. 249–252 (1997)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schaffer, D., Zuo, Z., Greenberg, S., artram, L., Dill, J., Dubs, S., Roseman, M.: Navigating hierarchically, clusetered networks through fisheye and full-zoom methods. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 3(2), 162–188 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shneiderman, B.: Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction, 3rd edn. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1998)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shipman, F., Marshall, C.: Spatial hypertext: an alternative to navigational and semantic links. ACM Computing Surveys 31(4) (December 1999)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sowa, J.F.: Principles of Semantic Networks: Explorations in the Representation of Knowledge (1991)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Szekely, P., et al.: Declarative Interface Models for User Interface Construction Tools: the MASTERMIND Approach. In: Bass, L.J., Unger, C. (eds.) Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction,, pp. 120–150. Chapman & Hall, London (1995)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Travers, M.: A visual representation for knowledge structures. In: Proceedings of the second annual ACM conference on Hypertext, November 1989, pp. 147–158 (1989)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • El Mustapha El Atifi
    • 1
  • Gilles Falquet
    • 1
  1. 1.CUI University of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations