Provably Secure Steganography with Imperfect Sampling

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3958)


The goal of steganography is to pass secret messages by disguising them as innocent-looking covertexts. Real world stegosystems are often broken because they make invalid assumptions about the system’s ability to sample covertexts. We examine whether it is possible to weaken this assumption. By modeling the covertext distribution as a stateful Markov process, we create a sliding scale between real world and provably secure stegosystems. We also show that insufficient knowledge of past states can have catastrophic results.


Information hiding steganography digital signatures Markov processes 


  1. [AP98]
    Anderson, R.J., Petitcolas, F.A.: On the limits of steganography. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 16(4), 474–481 (1998)Google Scholar
  2. [BC05]
    Backes, M., Cachin, C.: Public-key steganography with active attacks. In: Kilian, J. (ed.) TCC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3378, pp. 210–226. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [Cac98]
    Cachin, C.: An information-theoretic model for steganography. In: Aucsmith, D. (ed.) IH 1998. LNCS, vol. 1525, pp. 306–318. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [DIRR05]
    Dedić, N., Itkis, G., Reyzin, L., Russell, S.: Upper and lower bounds on black-box steganography. In: Kilian, J. (ed.) TCC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3378, pp. 227–244. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  5. [Gol04]
    Goldreich, O.: Foundations of cryptography. Basic applications, vol. 2 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. [HLvA02]
    Hopper, N.J., Langford, J., von Ahn, L.: Provably secure steganography. In: Yung, M. (ed.) CRYPTO 2002. LNCS, vol. 2442, p. 77. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [Hop04]
    Hopper, N.J.: Toward a theory of steganography. CMU Ph.D. Thesis (2004)Google Scholar
  8. [Hop05]
    Hopper, N.J.: On steganographic chosen covertext security. In: Caires, L., Italiano, G.F., Monteiro, L., Palamidessi, C., Yung, M. (eds.) ICALP 2005. LNCS, vol. 3580, pp. 311–323. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [Le03]
    Van Le, T.: Efficient provably secure public key steganography. Technical report, Florida State University, Cryptography ePrint Archive (2003),
  10. [LK03]
    Van Le, T., Kurosawa, K.: Efficient public key steganography secure against adaptively chosen stegotext attacks. Technical report, Florida State University, Cryptography ePrint Archive (2003)
  11. [LM04]
    Lysyanskaya, A., Meyerovich, M.: Steganography with imperfect sampling. In: CRYPTO 2004 Rump Session, August 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. [LM05]
    Lysyanskaya, A., Meyerovich, M.: Steganography with imperfect sampling. Technical Report ePrint Archive 2005/305, Brown University, Cryptography ePrint Archive (2005),
  13. [MLC01]
    Moskowitz, I.S., Longdon, G.E., Chang, L.: A new paradigm hidden in steganography. In: Proceedings of the 2000 workshop on New Security Paradigms, ACM Press, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  14. [PKSM]
    Petrowski, K., Kharrazi, M., Sencar, H.T., Memon, N.: Psteg: steganographic embedding through patching. In: 2005 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (2005)Google Scholar
  15. [RR03]
    Reyzin, L., Russell, S.: Simple stateless steganography. Technical Report ePrint Archive 2003/093, Boston University, Cryptography ePrint Archive (2003),
  16. [Sal03]
    Sallee, P.: Model-based steganography. In: Kalker, T., Cox, I., Ro, Y.M. (eds.) IWDW 2003. LNCS, vol. 2939, pp. 154–167. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [vAH04]
    von Ahn, L., Hopper, N.J.: Public-key steganography. In: Cachin, C., Camenisch, J.L. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3027, pp. 323–341. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA

Personalised recommendations