Advertisement

Outlines of Artificial Life: A Brief History of Evolutionary Individual Based Models

  • Stefan Bornhofen
  • Claude Lattaud
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3871)

Abstract

In the research field of Artificial Life, the concepts of emergence and adaptation form the basis of a class of models which describes reproducing individuals whose characteristics evolve over time. These models allow to investigate the laws of evolution, to observe emergent phenomena at individual and population level, and additionally yield new design techniques for computer animation and robotics industries. This paper presents an introductory non-exhaustive survey of the constitutive work of the last twenty years. When examining the history of development of these models, different periods can be distinguished. Each one incorporated new modeling concepts, however to this day all the models have failed to exhibit long-lasting, let alone open-ended evolution. A particular look at the richness of dynamics of the modeled environments reveals that only little attention has been paid to their design, which could account for the experienced evolutionary barrier.

Keywords

Evolutionary Individual Artificial Life Individual Base Model Genetic Regulatory Network Emergent Phenomenon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Langton, C.G.: Preface. Artificial Life II. In: Langton, C.G., et al. (eds.). SFI Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, vol. X, pp. 13–18. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1992)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reynolds, C.W.: Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model. Computer Graphics 21(4), 25–34 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sipper, M.: An introduction to artificial life, Explorations in Artificial Life (special issue of AI Expert), pp. 4–8. Miller Freeman, San Francisco (1995)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dorigo, M., Stuetzle, T.: Ant Colony Optimization. MIT Press, Cambridge (2005)MATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baldwin, J.M.: A New Factor in Evolution. Am. Naturalist 30, 441–451, 536-553 (1896)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hinton, G.E., Nowlan, S.J.: How Learning Can Guide Evolution. Complex Systems 1, 495–502 (1987)MATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dawkins, R.: The Blind Watchmaker. W.W. Norton, New York (1986)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Darwin, C.: On the origin of species, London. John Murray (1859)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Métivier, M., Lattaud, C., Heudin, J.C.: A stress based speciation model in LifeDrop. In: Proceedings of the 8th Int. Conference on Artificial Life, Sydney, Australia, pp. 121–126 (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ray, T.S.: An approach to the synthesis of life. In: Langton, C.G., et al. (eds.) Proceedings of Artificial Life II, pp. 371–408. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1992)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Van Valen, L.: A New Evolutionary Law. Evolutionary Theory 1, 1–30 (1973)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Holland, J.H.: The Echo Model, In: Proposal for a Research Program in Adaptive Computation, Santa Fe Institute (1992)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schmitz, O.J., Booth, G.: Modeling Food Web Complexity: The Consequence of Individual-based Spatially Explicit Behavioral Ecology on Trophic Interactions, Yale Univ. (1996)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yaeger, L.: Computational Genetics, Physiology, Metabolism, Neural Systems, Learning, Vision, and Behavior or PolyWorld: Life in a New Context. Artificial Life III. Ed Langton, 263-298 (1994)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lindenmayer, A.: Mathematical models for cellular interactions in development, Parts I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology 18, 280–315 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Taylor, T., Massey, C.: Recent Developments in the Evolution of Morphologies and Controllers for Physically Simulated Creatures. Artificial Life 7(1), 77–87 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sims, K.: Evolving Virtual Creatures. In: SIGGRAPH Proceedings, pp. 15–22. ACM Press, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sims, K.: Evolving 3D Morphology and Behavior by Competition. In: Brooks, R., Maes, P. (eds.) Artificial Life IV: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, pp. 28–39. MIT Press, Cambridge (1994)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ventrella, J.: Sexual Swimmers (Emergent Morphology and Locomotion without a Fitness Function). From Animals to Animats, pp. 484–493. MIT Press, Cambridge (1996)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Komosinski, M.: Ulatowski, Sz.: Framsticks: Towards a Simulation of a Nature-Like World, Creatures and Evolution. In: Proceedings of 5th European Conference on Artificial Life, pp. 261–265. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Komosinski, M., Rotaru-Varga, A.: Comparison of different genotype encodings for simulated 3D agents. Artificial Life Journal 7(4), 395–418 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Eggenberger, P.: Evolving morphologies of simulated 3d organisms based on differential gene expression. In: European Conference on Artificial Life, pp. 205–213 (1997)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bongard, J.C., Pfeifer, R.: Repeated Structure and Dissociation of Genotypic and Phenotypic Complexity in Artificial Ontogeny. In: Spector, L., et al. (eds.) Proceedings of GECCO 2001, pp. 829–836. Morgan Kaufmann publishers, San Francisco (2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brooks, R.A.: The Relationship Between Matter and Life. Nature 409, 409–411 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Holland, J.H.: Outline for a Logical Theory of Adaptive Systems, Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, 297-314 (1962)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Farmer, J.D., Belin, A.: Artificial Life: The Coming Evolution. In: Langton, C.G., et al. (eds.) Proceedings of Artificial Life II, pp. 815–840. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1992)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Bornhofen
    • 1
  • Claude Lattaud
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Intelligence Artificielle de Paris VLIAP5 – CRIP5, Université de Paris VParisFrance

Personalised recommendations