Negotiating Agent: Concept, Architecture and Communication Model
Traditional research in automated negotiation focuses on negotiation protocol and strategy. This paper studies automated negotiation from a new point, proposes a novel concept, namely negotiating agent, argues its significance in construction of automated negotiation system; designs its architecture, which can support both goal-directed reasoning and reactive response. In order to construct an interaction mechanism among negotiating agents, a communication model is proposed, in which the negotiation language used by agents is defined. Design of the communication model and the language has been attempted in such a way so as to provide general support for a wide variety of commercial negotiation circumstances, and therefore to be particularly suitable for electronic commerce. Finally, the design and expression of the negotiation ontology are discussed.
KeywordsCommunication Model Belief Base Negotiation Strategy Negotiation Protocol Agent Architecture
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 4.Rao, A.S., Georgeff, M.P.: Modeling rational agents within a BDI-architecture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, pp. 473–484. Morgan Kaufmann, Boston (1991)Google Scholar
- 5.Georgeff, M.P., Ingrand, F.F.: Research on procedural reasoning systems. Final Report, Phase 1, AI Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, Cal (1988)Google Scholar
- 6.Kraus, S.: Strategic Negotiation in Multi-agent Environments. MIT Press, Cambridge (2001)Google Scholar
- 7.Labrou, Y., Finin, T.: A Proposal for a new KQML Specification (1996), Online, http://www.cs.umbc.edu/kqml/papers
- 8.FIPA (2000) Specification part 2-agent communication language (2002), Online, http://www.fipa.org/
- 9.Georgeff, M.P., Ingrand, F.F.: Decision-making in an embedded reasoning system. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 1989), Detroit, MI, pp. 972–978. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (1989)Google Scholar
- 10.Finin, T., Weber, J., McGuire, J., Shapiro, S., Beck, C.: Specification of the KQML Agent Communication Language (1993), Online, http://www.cs.umbc.edu/kqml/papers
- 11.Huhns, M.N., Singh, M.P.: Ontology for Agents. IEEE Internet Computing, 81–83 (December 1997)Google Scholar
- 12.Dong, Y.: KQML ontology (2003), Online, http://cse.seu.edu.cn/people/ysdong/kqml.owl
- 13.Bartolini, C., Jennings, C.P.N.: A generic software framework for automated network. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Autonomous Agent and Multi-Agent Systems (2002)Google Scholar