Anonymous Authentication with Optional Shared Anonymity Revocation and Linkability

  • Martin Schaffer
  • Peter Schartner
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3928)


In this paper we propose three smartcard-based variants of anonymous authentication using unique one-time pseudonyms. The first variant can be used to authenticate a user. However, his identity cannot be revealed and linked to other pseudonyms unless solving the computational Diffie-Hellman problem. In the second variant a set R of revocation centers is able to revoke the anonymity in collaboration with a trust center T but they are not able to link the revealed identity to other pseudonyms of the same user. Using the third variant additionally provides linkability if R and T cooperate. Some selected applications for the proposed protocols include physical access control, secure auctions, eCoins and online gambling.


Signature Scheme Authentication Protocol Authentication Process Discrete Logarithm Problem Online Gambling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Ateniese, G., et al.: A practical and provably secure coalition-resistant group signature scheme. In: Bellare, M. (ed.) CRYPTO 2000. LNCS, vol. 1880, pp. 255–270. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bellare, M., Shi, H., Zhang, C.: Foundations of Group Signatures: The Case of Dynamic Groups. Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2004/077Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bao, F., Deng, R.H., Zhu, H.: Variations of diffie-hellman problem. In: Qing, S., Gollmann, D., Zhou, J. (eds.) ICICS 2003. LNCS, vol. 2836, pp. 301–312. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Camenisch, J., Lysyanskaya, A.: An efficient system for non-transferable anonymous credentials with optional anonymity revocation. In: Pfitzmann, B. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2001. LNCS, vol. 2045, pp. 93–118. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Camenisch, J., Stadler, A.: Efficient group signature schemes for large groups. In: Kaliski Jr., B.S. (ed.) CRYPTO 1997. LNCS, vol. 1294, pp. 410–424. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Castella-Roca, J., et al.: Digital chips for an on-line casino. In: Proc. of ITCC 2005, IEEE Computer Society, vol. I, pp. 494–499 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chaum, D., van Heyst, E.: Group signatures. In: Davies, D.W. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1991. LNCS, vol. 547, pp. 257–265. Springer, Heidelberg (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Damgard, I.: Efficient concurrent zero-knowledge in the auxiliary string model. In: Preneel, B. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1807, pp. 418–430. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Desmedt, Y., Frankel, Y.: Threshold cryptosystems. In: Brassard, G. (ed.) CRYPTO 1989. LNCS, vol. 435, pp. 307–315. Springer, Heidelberg (1990)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    El Gamal, T.: A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms. In: Blakely, G.R., Chaum, D. (eds.) CRYPTO 1984. LNCS, vol. 196, pp. 10–18. Springer, Heidelberg (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gennaro, R., et al.: Secure Distributed Key Generation for Discrete-Log Based Cryptosystems. In: Stern, J. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1999. LNCS, vol. 1592, pp. 295–310. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goldreich, O., et al.: How to play any mental game – a completeness theorem for protocols with honest majority. In: Proc. 19th ACM STOC, pp. 218–229 (1987)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jakobsson, M., Yung, M.: Revokable and Versatile Electronic Money. In: Proc. of the 3rd CCCS, pp. 76–87. ACM Press, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim, J., et al.: Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Dynamic Groups with Power-Limited Devices. In: Proc. of SCIS 2003, vol. 1/2, pp. 405–410 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim, H., et al.: Design and Implementation of Revocable Electronic Cash System based on Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem. In: Proc. of WISA 2002, Korea, pp. 85–102 (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kiayias, A., Tsiounis, Y., Yung, M.: Traceable signatures. In: Cachin, C., Camenisch, J.L. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3027, pp. 571–589. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nakanishi, T., Shiota, M., Sugiyama, Y.: An Unlinkable Divisible Electronic Cash with User’s Less Computations Using Active Trustees. In: Proc. ISITA 2002, Xi’an, pp. 547–550 (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nguyen, L., Safavi-Naini, R.: Dynamic k-Times Anonymous Authentication. In: Ioannidis, J., Keromytis, A.D., Yung, M. (eds.) ACNS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3531, pp. 318–333. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pashalidis, A., Mitchell, C.J.: A Security Model for Anonymous Credential Systems. In: IFIP Conf. Proc., vol. 148, pp. 183–189. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rivest, R., Shamir, A., Adelman, L.: A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems. Communications of the ACM 21, 120–126 (1978)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Scharnter, P., Schaffer, M.: Unique User-generated Digital Pseudonyms. In: Gorodetsky, V., Kotenko, I., Skormin, V.A. (eds.) MMM-ACNS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3685, pp. 194–206. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schartner, P.: Security Tokens – Basics, Applications, Management, and Infrastructures. IT-Verlag (2001)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sako, K., Yonezawa, S., Teranishi, I.: Anonymous Authentication: For Privacy and Security. NEC Journal of Advanced Technology 2(1), 79–83 (2005)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schnorr, C.P.: Efficient Signature Generation for Smart Cards. In: Günther, C.G. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1988. LNCS, vol. 330, pp. 239–252. Springer, Heidelberg (1988)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stadler, A.: Publicly Verifiable Secret Sharing. In: Maurer, U.M. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1996. LNCS, vol. 1070, pp. 190–199. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Teranisi, L., Furukawa, J., Sako, K.: k-Times Anonymous Authentication. In: Lee, P.J. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3329, pp. 308–322. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Schaffer
    • 1
  • Peter Schartner
    • 1
  1. 1.Computer Science, System SecurityUniversity of KlagenfurtAustria

Personalised recommendations