A New Scheme to Fingerprint XML Data

  • Fei Guo
  • Jianmin Wang
  • Zhihao Zhang
  • Deyi Li
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3915)


Watermarking has been used for digital rights protection over different types of contents on the Web. Since XML data is widely used and distributed over the Internet, watermarking XML data is of great interest. In this paper, we present a new watermarking scheme to embed different fingerprints in XML data. The fingerprint can be used to trace illegal distributors. We also take into consideration that XML data usually contains categorical elements which can’t tolerant much modification, our scheme attempts to reduce modifications without bringing down the robustness of the fingerprint. Modifications could be reduced by choosing different patterns to insert. The experiments show that our scheme is effective to make less distortion to the original data and the fingerprint maintains the same robustness level at the same time.


Watermark Scheme Fragile Watermark Robust Watermark Selected Element Insertion Algorithm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Agrawal, R., Haas, P.J., Kiernan, J.: Watermarking Relational Data: Framework, Algorithms and Analysis. VLDB Journal (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sion, R., Atallah, M., Prabhakar, S.: Rights Protection for Relational Data. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGMOD, pp. 98–109 (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gross-Amblard, D.: Query-preserving Watermarking of Relational Databases and XML Documents. In: PODS 2003, San Diego CA, pp. 191–201 (2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ng, W., Lau, H.-L.: Effective Approaches for Watermarking XML Data. In: Zhou, L.-z., Ooi, B.-C., Meng, X. (eds.) DASFAA 2005. LNCS, vol. 3453, pp. 68–80. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li, Y., Swarup, V., Jajodia, S.: Constructing a Virtual Primary Key for Fingerprinting Relational Data. In: DRM 2003, Washington, DC, USA (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sion, R., Atallah, M., Prabhakar, S.: Resilient Information Hiding for Abstract Semi-Structures. In: Cox, I., Kalker, T., Lee, H.-K. (eds.) IWDW 2004. LNCS, vol. 3304, Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sion, R.: Proving Ownership Over Categorical Data. In: Proceedings of ICDE (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li, Y., Guo, H., Jajodia, S.: Tamper Detection and Localization for Categorical Data Using Fragile Watermarks. In: DRM 2004, Washington, DC, USA (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fei Guo
    • 1
  • Jianmin Wang
    • 1
  • Zhihao Zhang
    • 1
  • Deyi Li
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of SoftwareTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.China Constitute of Electronic System EngineeringBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations