The Fuzzy-Spatial Descriptor for the Online Graphic Recognition: Overlapping Matrix Algorithm

  • Noorazrin Zakaria
  • Jean-Marc Ogier
  • Josep Llados
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3872)

Abstract

In this paper we present the algorithm of our fuzzy-spatial descriptor for symbol recognition in on-line sketches. Fuzzy sets are used to enhance this approach to cope with the inherent distortion of freehand drawings. It allows handling some primitive irregularities due to different ways of drawing in complex composite forms. The descriptor provides complete local information of the primitives that consist of only straight lines. This descriptor used the opening angle between primitives and its overlapping properties in 1D projection to describe its local spatial properties. Segmentation by curve and pen-speed properties of each drawing has been used in obtaining our basic primitives. The experiment results show that a part from its rotational-invariant, this descriptor is also robust to multi-scale of segmentation of its primitives.

Keywords

Membership Function Linguistic Term Fuzzy Membership Function Speed Profile Spatial Descriptor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Dean, R.: Specifying gestures by examples. Computer Graphics 25, 329–337 (1991)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fonseca, M.J., Pimentel, C., Jorge, J.A.: CALI – an online scribble recognizer for calligraphic interfaces. In: AAAI Spring Symposium on Sketch Understanding, pp. 51–58. AAAI Press, Menlo Park (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sezgin, T.M., Stahovich, T., Davis, R.: Sketch based interfaces: early processing for sketch understanding. In: Proceedings of the 2001 Workshop on PUI, Orlando, Florida, pp. 1–8 (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Calhoun, C., Stahovich, T.F., Kurtoglu, T., Kara, L.B.: Recognizing multi-stroke symbols. In: Proceddings of 2002 AAAI Spring Symposium – Sketch Understanding, pp. 15–23. AAAI Press, Menlo Park (2002)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Saund, E.: Finding Perceptually Closed Paths in Sketches and Drawings. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 25(4), 457–491 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Heloise, H., Micheal, S., Richard, N.: Robust Sketched Symbol Fragmentation using Templates. In: International Conference on Intelligent User Interface, pp. 156–160. ACM Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noorazrin Zakaria
    • 1
  • Jean-Marc Ogier
    • 1
  • Josep Llados
    • 2
  1. 1.L3iUniversity of La RochelleFrance
  2. 2.CVCUniversity Autonoma of BarcelenoSpain

Personalised recommendations