Structural Analysis of Mathematical Formulae with Verification Based on Formula Description Grammar

  • Seiichi Toyota
  • Seiichi Uchida
  • Masakazu Suzuki
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3872)


In this paper, a reliable and efficient structural analysis method for mathematical formulae is proposed for practical mathematical OCR. The proposed method consists of three steps. In the first step, a fast structural analysis algorithm is performed on each mathematical formula to obtain a tree representation of the formula. This step generally provides a correct tree representation but sometimes provides an erroneous representation. Therefore, the tree representation is verified by the following two steps. In the second step, the result of the analysis step, (i.e., a tree representation) is converted into a one-dimensional representation. The third step is a verification step where the one-dimensional representation is parsed by a formula description grammar, which is a context-free grammar specialized for mathematical formulae. If the one-dimensional representation is not accepted by the grammar, the result of the analysis step is detected as an erroneous result and alarmed to OCR users. This three-step organization achieves reliable and efficient structural analysis without any two-dimensional grammars.


False Alarm Analysis Step Mathematical Formula Tree Representation Mathematical Symbol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seiichi Toyota
    • 1
  • Seiichi Uchida
    • 2
  • Masakazu Suzuki
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate School of MathematicsKyushu University 
  2. 2.Faculty of Information Science and Electrical EngineeringKyushu University 
  3. 3.Faculty of MathematicsKyushu University 

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