Batching SSL/TLS Handshake Improved

  • Fang Qi
  • Weijia Jia
  • Feng Bao
  • Yongdong Wu
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3783)


Secure socket layer (SSL) is the most popular protocol to secure Internet communications. Since SSL handshake requires a large amount of computational resource, batch RSA was proposed to speedup SSL session initialization. However, the batch method is impractical since it requires a multiple of certificates. In this paper, we overcome this problem without modifying SSL protocol. To select the optimal batching parameters in terms of performance of server and durable waiting time of the client, we model the connection request with M/D/1 queue. We validate the solutions of the analytical model through simulation.


Arrival Rate Batch Size Secure Socket Layer Optimal Batch Public Exponent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Coarfa, C., Druschel, P., Wallach, D.S.: Performance Analysis of TLS Web Servers. In: NDSS 2002 (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dierks, T., Rescorla, E.: The TLS Protocol, Version 1.1, IETF Draft, RFC 2246 (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goldberg, I., Wagner, D.: Randomness and the Netscape Browser. Dr. Dobb’s Journal, 66–70 (January 1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Freier, A.O., Karlton, P., Kocher, P.C.: The SSL Protocol, V3.0Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Feigenbaum, J., Freedman, M.J., Sander, T., Shostack, A.: Privacy Engineering for Digital Rights Management Systems. In: Sander, T. (ed.) DRM 2001. LNCS, vol. 2320, pp. 76–105. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rescorla, E., Cain, A., Korver, B.: SSLACC: A Clustered SSL Accelerator. In: Proceedings of the 11th USENIX Security ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldberg, A., Buff, R., Schmitt, A.: Secure Web Server Performance Dramatically Improved By Caching SSL Session Keys. In: Workshop on Internet Server Performance (June 1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fiat, A.: Batch RSA. In: Brassard, G. (ed.) CRYPTO 1989. LNCS, vol. 435, pp. 175–185. Springer, Heidelberg (1990); See also Journal of Cryptology 10(2), 75–88 (1997)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shacham, H., Boneh, D.: Improving SSL Handshake Performance via Batching. In: Naccache, D. (ed.) CT-RSA 2001. LNCS, vol. 2020, pp. 28–43. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kleinrock, L.: Queueing Systems, vol. I. Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken (1975)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cheng, W.C., Chou, C.-F., Golubchik, L.: Performance of Batch-based Digital Signatures. In: 10th IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, pp. 291–299 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alec, R.: Capitalism Is Dead: Peoplism Rules: Creating Success Out of Corporate Chaos. McGraw-Hill, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vuillaume, C.: Efficiency Comparison of Several RSA Variants, Studienarbeit (March 2003)
  14. 14.
    Cryptix: The Open Source Toolkit,

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fang Qi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Weijia Jia
    • 1
  • Feng Bao
    • 2
  • Yongdong Wu
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Information Science and EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Institute for Infocomm ResearchSingapore

Personalised recommendations