Skip to main content

Security Analysis of Michael: The IEEE 802.11i Message Integrity Code

  • Conference paper

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS,volume 3823)

Abstract

The latest IEEE 802.11i uses a keyed hash function, called Michael, as the message integrity code. This paper describes some properties and weaknesses of Michael. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for finding collisions of Michael. Our observation reveals that the collision status of Michael only depends on the second last block message and the output of the block function in the third last round. We show that Michael is not collision-free by providing a method to find collisions of this keyed hash function. Moreover, we develop a method to find fixed points of Michael. If the output of the block function in any round is equal to any of these fixed points, a packet forgery attack could be mounted against Michael. Since the Michael value is encrypted by RC4, the proposed packet forgery attack does not endanger the security of the whole TKIP system.

Keywords

  • Medium Access Control
  • Advance Encryption Standard
  • Block Function
  • Collision Status
  • Forgery Attack

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 6: Medium Access Control (MAC) Security Enhancements, July 23 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Advanced Encryption Standard. National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST FIPS PUB 197, U.S. Department of Commerce (November 2001)

    Google Scholar 

  3. ANSI/IEEE Std 802.11, Edition. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Arbaugh, W., Shankar, N., Wan, Y.C.: Your 802.11 Wireless Network has No Clothes. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Wireless LANs and Home Networks, Singapore, pp. 131–144 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Borisov, N., Goldberg, I., Wagner, D.: Intercepting Mobile Communications: The Insecurity of 802.11. In: Proceedings of the 7th Annual Internaltional Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Rome, Italy, pp. 180–189 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Ferguson, N.: Michael: an improved MIC for 802.11 WEP. IEEE 802.11 doc 02-020r0, January 17 (2002), http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/11/Documents/DocumentHolder/2-020.zip

  7. Fluhrer, S., Mantin, I., Shamir, A.: Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4. In: Proceedings of the 8th Annual International Workshop on Selected Areas in Cryptography, Toronto, Canada, pp. 1–24 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Rivest, R.: The RC4 Encryption Algorithm, RSA Data Security Inc. (Proprietary) (March 1992)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Stubblefield, A., Ioannidis, J., Rubin, A.: Using the Fluhrer, Mantin, and Shamir Attack to Break WEP. In: Proceedings of the 2002 Network and Distributed Systems Security Symposium, San Diego, California, pp. 17–22 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Wool, A.: A Note on the Fragility of the “Michael” Message Integrity Code. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2004)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2005 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this paper

Cite this paper

Huang, J., Seberry, J., Susilo, W., Bunder, M. (2005). Security Analysis of Michael: The IEEE 802.11i Message Integrity Code. In: Enokido, T., Yan, L., Xiao, B., Kim, D., Dai, Y., Yang, L.T. (eds) Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing – EUC 2005 Workshops. EUC 2005. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 3823. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/11596042_44

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/11596042_44

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-540-30803-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-540-32296-2

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)