Detection and Diagnosis of Inter-AS Routing Anomalies by Cooperative Intelligent Agents

  • Osamu Akashi
  • Atsushi Terauchi
  • Kensuke Fukuda
  • Toshio Hirotsu
  • Mitsuru Maruyama
  • Toshiharu Sugawara
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3775)


Verifying whether the routing information originating from an AS is being correctly distributed throughout the Internet is important for stable inter-AS routing operation. However, the global behavior of routing information is difficult to understand because it changes spatially and temporally. Thus, rapid detection of inter-AS routing failures and diagnosis of their causes are also difficult. We have developed a multi-agent-based diagnostic system, ENCORE, to cope with these problems, and improved its functions (ENCORE-2) through our experience in applying the system to commercial ISPs. Cooperative actions among ENCORE-2 agents provide efficient methods for collecting, integrating, and analyzing routing information observed in multiple ASes to detect and diagnose anomalies that human operators have difficulty in handling. ENCORE-2 is also applied to the hijacked route problem, which is one of recent major inter-AS issues.


  1. 1.
    Rekhter, Y., Li, T.: A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4), RFC1771 (1995)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    The North American Network Operators’ Group: (NANOG mailing list),
  3. 3.
    Feldmann, A., Maennel, O., Mao, Z., Berger, A., Maggs, B.: Locating Internet Routing Instability. In: Proc. of SIGCOMM, pp. 205–218. ACM, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Akashi, O., Sugawara, T., Murakami, K., Maruyama, M., Koyanagi, K.: Agent System for Inter-AS Routing Error Diagnosis. IEEE Internet Computing 6, 78–82 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Internet Routing Registry:
  6. 6.
    Nagahashi, K., Esaki, H., Murai, J.: BGP Integrity Check for the Conflict Origin AS Prefix in the Inter-domain Routing. In: Symposium on Applications and the Internet, IEEE/IPJS, pp. 276–282 (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
    Mahajan, R., Wetherall, D., Anderson, T.: Understanding BGP Misconfiguration. In: Proc. of SIGCOMM, pp. 3–16. ACM, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
    Terauchi, A., Akashi, O., Maruyama, M., Fukuda, K., Sugawara, T., Hirotsu, T., Kurihara, S.: ARTISTE: An Agent Organization Management System for Multi-agent Systems. In: 8th Pacific Rim Int’l Workshop on Multi-Agents, PRIMA (2005) (To be appeared)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    O’Hare, G.M.P., Jennings, N.R.: Foundations of Distributed Artificial Intelligence. Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken (1996)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Chang, D., Govindan, R., Heidemann, J.: The Temporal and Topological Characteristics of BGP Path Changes. In: Proc. of Int’l Conf. on Network Protocols, pp. 190–199. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang, K., Yen, A., Zhao, X., Massey, D., Wu, S., Zhnag, L.: On Detection of Anomalous Routing Dynamics in BGP. In: Proc. of Networking. IFIP, pp. 259–270 (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Teoh, S., Ma, K., Wu, S., Massey, D., Zhao, X., Pei, D., Wang, L., Zhang, L., Bush, R.: Visual-Based Anomaly Detection for BGP Origin AS Change (OASC) Events. In: Brunner, M., Keller, A. (eds.) DSOM 2003. LNCS, vol. 2867, pp. 155–168. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Subramanian, L., Roth, V., Stoica, I., Shenker, S., Katz, R.: Listen and Whisper: Security Mechanisms for BGP. In: Proc. of Networked Systems Design and Implementation. USENIX, pp. 127–140 (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Osamu Akashi
    • 1
  • Atsushi Terauchi
    • 1
  • Kensuke Fukuda
    • 1
  • Toshio Hirotsu
    • 2
  • Mitsuru Maruyama
    • 1
  • Toshiharu Sugawara
    • 3
  1. 1.NTT Network Innovation Labs.TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Toyohashi University of TechnologyAichiJapan
  3. 3.NTT Communication Science Labs.KyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations