Advertisement

Methodologies for the Reliable Construction of Ontological Knowledge

  • Eduard Hovy
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3596)

Abstract

This paper addresses the methodology of ontology construction. It identifies five styles of approach to ontologizing (deriving from philosophy, cognitive science, linguistics, AI/computational linguistics, and domain reasoning) and argues that they do not provide the same results. It then provides a more detailed example of one of the approaches.

Keywords

Natural Language Processing Machine Translation Formal Ontology Ontological Knowledge Ontology Construction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aguado, G., Ba1on, A., Bateman, J., Bernardos, S., Fernández, M., Gómez-Pérez, A., Nieto, E., Olalla, A., Plaza, R., Sánchez, A.: ONTOGENERATION: Reusing Domain and Linguistic Ontologies for Spanish Text Generation. In: Proceedings of the ECAI Workshop on Applications of Ontologies and Problem Solving Methods. ECAI Conference, Brighton, England, pp. 1–10 (1998)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alberdi, E., Sleeman, D.H., Korpi, M.: Accommodating Surprise in Taxonomic tasks: The Role of Expertise. Cognitive Science 24(1), 53–92 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bateman, J.A., Kasper, R.T., Moore, J.D., Whitney, R.A.: A General Organization of Knowledge for Natural Language Processing: The Penman Upper Model. Unpublished research report, USC/Information Sciences Institute, Marina del Rey, CA. A version of this paper appears in 1990 as: Upper Modeling: A Level of Semantics for Natural Language Processing. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Language Generation, Pittsburgh, PA (1989)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buitelaar, P., Eigner, T., Declerck, T.: OntoSelect: A Dynamic Ontology Library with Support for Ontology Selection. In: Proceedings of the Demo Session at the International Semantic Web Conference, Hiroshima, Japan (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chklovski, T., Ratnakar, V., Gil, Y.: User Interfaces with Semi-Formal Representations: A Study in Designing Augmentation Systems. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI 2005), San Diego, CA (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dorr, B.J., Olsen, M., Habash, N., Thomas, S.: The LCS Verb Database. Technical Report Online Software Database, University of Maryland, College Park (2001), http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/bonnie/LCS_Database_Docmentation.html
  7. 7.
    Dorr, B., Farwell, D., Green, R., Habash, N., Helmreich, S., Hovy, E.H., Levin, L., Miller, K., Mitamura, T., Rambow, O., Reeder, F., Siddharthan, A.: Interlingual Annotation of Parallel Corpora. Submitted to Journal of Natural Language Engineering (submitted)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Edmonds, P., Hirst, G.: Near-synonymy and Lexical Choice. Computational Linguistics 28(2), 105–144 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Farquhar, A., Fikes, R., Rice, J.: The Ontolingua Server: A Tool for Collaborative Ontology Construction. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 46, 707–727 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fellbaum, C. (ed.): WordNet: An On-Line Lexical Database and Some of its Applications. MIT Press, Cambridge (1998)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fillmore, C.: The Case for Case. In: Bach, E., Harms, R. (eds.) Universals in Linguistic Theory, pp. 1–88. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston (1976)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gangemi, A., Guarino, N., Masolo, C., Oltramari, A., Schneider, L.: Sweetening Ontologies with DOLCE. In: Gómez-Pérez, A., Benjamins, V.R. (eds.) EKAW 2002. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2473, pp. 166–181. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gil, Y., MacGregor, R., Myers, K., Smith, S., Swartout, W.R.: CommonP: A Common Plan Representation for Air Campaign Plans. USC/ISI Technical Report (1999), available at: http://www.isi.edu/isd/HPKB/planet/alignment
  14. 14.
    Gruber, T.R.: Toward principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing. In: Guarino, N., Poli, R. (eds.) International Workshop on Formal Ontology, Padova, Italy, Revised (August 1993); Published in International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, special issue on Formal Ontology in Conceptual Analysis and Knowledge Representation (Guarino, N., Poli, R. (guest eds.)) (to appear); Available as technical report KSL-93-04, Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guarino, N.: Some Ontological Principles for Designing Upper Level Lexical Resources. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Lexical Resources and Evaluation (LREC), Granada, Spain, pp. 527–534 (1998)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Guarino, N., Welty, C.: An Overview of OntoClean. In: Staab, S., Studer, R. (eds.) Handbook on Ontologies, pp. 151–159. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hirst, G.: Ontology and the Lexicon. In: Staab, S., Studer, R. (eds.) Handbook on Ontologies, pp. 209–229. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hovy, E.H., Philpot, A., Pantel, P., Fleischman, M.B.: The Omega Ontology (in prep.)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hovy, E.H.: Comparing Sets of Semantic Relations in Ontologies. In: Green, R., Bean, C.A., Myaeng, S.H. (eds.) The Semantics of Relationships: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, pp. 91–110. Kluwer, Dordrecht (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hovy, E.H.: Combining and Standardizing Large-Scale, Practical Ontologies for Machine Translation and Other Uses. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), Granada, Spain, pp. 535–542 (1998)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hovy, E.H., Nirenburg, S.: Approximating an Interlingua in a Principled Way. In: Proceedings of the DARPA Speech and Natural Language Workshop, Arden House, NY (1992)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    Iwasaki, Y., Fraquhar, A., Fikes, R., Rice, J.: A Web-Based Compositional Modeling System for Sharing of Physical Knowledge. Morgan Kaufmann, Nagoya (1997)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kim, J., Gil, Y., Spraragen, M.: A Knowlesdge-Based Approach to Interactive Workflow Composition. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Planning and Scheduling for Web and Grid Services at the International Conference on Automatic Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS 2004), Whistler, Canada (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kingsbury, P., Palmer, M.: From Treebank to PropBank. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2002). Las Palmas, Spain (2002)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Knight, K., Luk, S.K.: Building a Large-Scale Knowledge Base for Machine Translation. In: Proceedings of the AAAI Conference, pp. 773–778 (1994)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Korpi, M.: Making Conceptual Connections: An Investigation of Cognitive Strategies and Heuristics for Inductive Categorization with Natural Concepts. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University (1988)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lakoff, G.: Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1987)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lenat, D.B., Guha, R.V.: Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1990)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lenat, D.B.: CYC: A Large-Scale Investment in Knowledge Infrastructure. Communications of the ACM 38(11), 32–38 (1995)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Levin, B.: English Verb Classes and Alternations. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1993)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mahesh, K., Nirenburg, S.: A Situated Ontology for Practical NLP. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Basic Ontological Issues in Knowledge Sharing, International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 1995), Montreal, Canada (1995)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mahesh, K.: Ontology Development for Machine Translation: Ideology and Methodology (CRL report MCCS-96-292). New Mexico State University, Las Cruces (1996)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    McGuinness, D.L., Fikes, R., Rice, J., Wilder, S.: An Environment for Merging and Testing Large Ontologies. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, KR 2000 (2000)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Miller, G.A.: WordNet: An Online Lexical database. International Journal of Lexicography 3(4) (1990) (special issue)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nirenburg, S., Raskin, V., Onyshkevych, B.: Apologiae Ontologia. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues (TMI), Leuven, Belgium (1995)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nirenburg, S., Wilks, Y.: What’s in a Symbol: Ontology, Representation and Language. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 13(1), 923 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Noy, N.F., Musen, M.A.: An Algorithm for Merging and Aligning Ontologies: Automation and Tool Support. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Ontology Management at the Sixteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 1999), Orlando, FL (1999), Also available a: http://www-smi.stanford.edu/pubs/SMI_Reports/SMI-1999-0799.pdf
  39. 39.
    Palmer, M., Rosenzweig, J., Schuler, W.: Capturing Motion Verb Generalizations with Synchronous TAGs. In: Dizier, P.S. (ed.) Predicative Forms in NLP. Kluwer Academic Press, Boston (1998)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Philpot, A., Fleischman, M., Hovy, E.H.: Semi-Automatic Construction of a General Purpose Ontology. In: Proceedings of the International Lisp Conference, New York, NY (October 2003) (invited)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Piaget, J.: Language and Thought of the Child. Routledge Classics, London (1959) (English translation)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sapir, E.: The Status of Linguistics as a Science. Language 5, 207–214 (1929/1964); Reprinted in Mandelbaum, D.G. (ed.) Culture, Language, and Personality: Selected Essays of Edward Sapir. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sowa, J.: Knowledge Representation (1999)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Uschold, M., Clark, P., Healy, M., Williamson, K., Woods, S.: Ontology Reuse and Application. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Formal Ontology in Information Systems, Held in association with the KR 1998 Conference, Trento, Italy, pp. 179–192 (1998)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Visser, P., Jones, D., Bench-Capon, T., Shave, M.: Assessing Heterogeneity by Classifying Ontology Mismatches. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Formal Ontology in Information Systems, Held in association with the KR-98 Conference, Trento, Italy, pp. 148–162 (1998)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vossen, P. (ed.): EuroWordNet: A Multilingual Database with Lexical Semantic Networks. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1998)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Vygotsky, L.S.: Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1978) (English edition)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Weischedel, R., Hovy, E.H., Marcus, M., Palmer, M., Ramshaw, L.: The Onto- Bank Project (in prep.)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Whorf, B.L.: Science and Linguistics. Technology Review 42(6), 227–231, 247–248 (1940/1972); Reprinted in Carroll, J.B. (ed.) Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduard Hovy
    • 1
  1. 1.Information Sciences InstituteUniversity of Southern CaliforniaMarina del ReyUSA

Personalised recommendations