A Novel Algorithm for Fitting 3-D Active Appearance Models: Applications to Cardiac MRI Segmentation

  • Alexander Andreopoulos
  • John K. Tsotsos
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3540)


We present an efficient algorithm for fitting three dimensional (3-D) Active Appearance Models (AAMs). We do so, by introducing a 3-D extension of a recently proposed method that is based on the inverse compositional image alignment algorithm. We demonstrate its applicability for the segmentation of the left ventricle in short axis cardiac MRI. We perform experiments to evaluate the speed and segmentation accuracy of our algorithm on a total of 1473 cardiac MR images acquired from 11 patients. The fitting is around 60 times faster than standard Gauss-Newton optimization, with a segmentation accuracy that is as good as, and often better than Gauss-Newton.


Left Ventricle Segmentation Accuracy Active Appearance Model Image Alignment Appearance Variation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Baker, S., Goss, R., Matthews, I.: Lucas-Kanade 20 Years on: A Unifying Framework. International Journal of Computer Vision 56(3), 221–255 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baker, S., Matthews, I.: Equivalence and Efficiency of Image Alignment Algorithms. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 1090–1097 (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cootes, T.F.: Statistical Models of Appearance for Computer Vision. [Online]. Available,
  4. 4.
    Cootes, T.F., Edwards, G., Taylor, C.: Active Appearance Models. In: Burkhardt, H., Neumann, B. (eds.) ECCV 1998. LNCS, vol. 1407, pp. 484–498. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frangi, A.F., Niessen, W.J., Viergever, M.A.: Three-Dimensional Modeling for Functional Analysis of Cardiac Images: A Review. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 20(1), 2–25 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Matthews, I., Baker, S.: Active Appearance Models Revisited. International Journal of Computer Vision 60(2), 135–164 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mitchell, S.C., Bosch, J.G., Lelieveldt, B.P.F., van der Geest, R.J., Reiber, J.H.C., Sonka, M.: 3-D Active Appearance Models: Segmentation of Cardiac MR and Ultrasound Images. IEEE Transaction on Medical Imaging 21(9), 1167–1178 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Andreopoulos
    • 1
  • John K. Tsotsos
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Centre for Vision ResearchYork UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations