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Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Engineer Blood Vessels

  • Xin Yi Chan
  • Morgan B. Elliott
  • Bria Macklin
  • Sharon GerechtEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE, volume 163)

Abstract

Development of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a remarkable scientific advancement that allows scientists to harness the power of regenerative medicine for potential treatment of disease using unaffected cells. PSCs provide a unique opportunity to study and combat cardiovascular diseases, which continue to claim the lives of thousands each day. Here, we discuss the differentiation of PSCs into vascular cells, investigation of the functional capabilities of the derived cells, and their utilization to engineer microvascular beds or vascular grafts for clinical application.

Graphical Abstract Human iPSCs generated from patients are differentiated toward ECs and perivascular cells for use in disease modeling, microvascular bed development, or vascular graft fabrication

Keywords

Human pluripotent stem cells Small-diameter tissue engineered vascular grafts Vascular differentiation Vascular disease modeling Vascular networks 

Abbreviations

2D

Two-dimensional

3D

Three-dimensional

bFGF

Basic fibroblast growth factor

BMPR2

Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II

BP

Burst pressure

CAD

Coronary artery disease

CCD

Chronic cardiovascular defects

DO

Dissolved oxygen

DPI

Diphenyleneiodonium

EB

Embryoid body

EC

Endothelial cell

ECM

Extracellular matrix

EVC

Early vascular cell

FBN1

Fibrillin1

FPAH

Family members of pulmonary arterial hypertension

HA

Hyaluronic acid

(h)ESC

(Human) embryonic stem cell

HIF

Hypoxia-inducible factors

(h)[i]PSC

(Human) [induced] pluripotent stem cell

HUVECs

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells

ITA

Internal thoracic artery

MFS

Marfan syndrome

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

PDGF-BB

Platelet-derived growth factor-BB

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PEGDA

PEG-diacrylate

PGA

Polyglycolic acid

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SMA

Smooth muscle actin

SMMHC

Smooth muscle myosin heavy chain

SRS

Suture retention strength

(s)TEVG

(Small-diameter) tissue engineered vascular graft

SV

Saphenous vein

TESA

Tissue engineering by self-assembly

TGFβ

Transforming growth factor β

UMC

Unaffected mutation carrier

VEGF(R)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (receptor)

vSMC

Vascular smooth muscle cell

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Yi Chan
    • 1
  • Morgan B. Elliott
    • 1
  • Bria Macklin
    • 1
  • Sharon Gerecht
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringInstitute for NanoBioTechnology, Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

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