Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Engineer Blood Vessels

  • Xin Yi Chan
  • Morgan B. Elliott
  • Bria Macklin
  • Sharon GerechtEmail author
Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE, volume 163)


Development of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a remarkable scientific advancement that allows scientists to harness the power of regenerative medicine for potential treatment of disease using unaffected cells. PSCs provide a unique opportunity to study and combat cardiovascular diseases, which continue to claim the lives of thousands each day. Here, we discuss the differentiation of PSCs into vascular cells, investigation of the functional capabilities of the derived cells, and their utilization to engineer microvascular beds or vascular grafts for clinical application.

Graphical Abstract Human iPSCs generated from patients are differentiated toward ECs and perivascular cells for use in disease modeling, microvascular bed development, or vascular graft fabrication


Human pluripotent stem cells Small-diameter tissue engineered vascular grafts Vascular differentiation Vascular disease modeling Vascular networks 







Basic fibroblast growth factor


Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II


Burst pressure


Coronary artery disease


Chronic cardiovascular defects


Dissolved oxygen




Embryoid body


Endothelial cell


Extracellular matrix


Early vascular cell




Family members of pulmonary arterial hypertension


Hyaluronic acid


(Human) embryonic stem cell


Hypoxia-inducible factors


(Human) [induced] pluripotent stem cell


Human umbilical vein endothelial cells


Internal thoracic artery


Marfan syndrome


Matrix metalloproteinase


Platelet-derived growth factor-BB


Poly(ethylene glycol)




Polyglycolic acid


Reactive oxygen species


Smooth muscle actin


Smooth muscle myosin heavy chain


Suture retention strength


(Small-diameter) tissue engineered vascular graft


Saphenous vein


Tissue engineering by self-assembly


Transforming growth factor β


Unaffected mutation carrier


Vascular endothelial growth factor (receptor)


Vascular smooth muscle cell


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Yi Chan
    • 1
  • Morgan B. Elliott
    • 1
  • Bria Macklin
    • 1
  • Sharon Gerecht
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringInstitute for NanoBioTechnology, Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

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