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In Vitro Genotoxicity Testing: Significance and Use in Environmental Monitoring

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE, volume 157)

Abstract

There is ongoing concern about the consequences of mutations in humans and biota arising from environmental exposures to industrial and other chemicals. Genetic toxicity tests have been used to analyze chemicals, foods, drugs, and environmental matrices such as air, water, soil, and wastewaters. This is because the mutagenicity of a substance is highly correlated with its carcinogenicity. However, no less important are the germ cell mutations, because the adverse outcome is related not only to an individual but also to population levels. For environmental analysis the most common choices are in vitro assays, and among them the most widely used is the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome assay). There are several protocols and methodological approaches to be applied when environmental samples are tested and these are discussed in this chapter, along with the meaning and relevance of the obtained responses. Two case studies illustrate the utility of in vitro mutagenicity tests such as the Ames test. It is clear that, although it is not possible to use the outcome of the test directly in risk assessment, the application of the assays provides a great opportunity to monitor the exposure of humans and biota to mutagenic substances for the purpose of reducing or quantifying that exposure.

Keywords

Ames test Cancer Environmental testing Germ cell mutations Mutagenicity 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Technology, UNICAMPLimeiraBrazil
  2. 2.National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)BilthovenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Errol Zeiger ConsultingChapel HillUSA

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